Microsoft Windows CE 3.0  

Windows CE Glossary

This is retired content. This content is outdated and is no longer being maintained. It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies. This content may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to sites or pages that no longer exist.

The Windows CE glossary contains definitions for terms and concepts used in the Windows CE SDK, CE Studio, and Platform Builder documentation. For more information about individual concepts and terminology used in this documentation, consult the resources available at this Microsoft Web siteor the Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) at this Microsoft Web site.


.abx file

An absolute binary data format file. An .abx file is an image file that is generated by Romimage.exe that makes up the bits of the operating system image. See image file.

ACCEL data structure

A data structure that defines an accelerator key used in an accelerator table.

accelerator editor

A resource editor that allows you to add, delete, change, or browse the shortcut key assignments for your project.

accelerator table

A Windows CE resource that contains a list of shortcut keys and the command identifiers associated with them.

Action button

A hardware navigation control on a Palm-size PC that functions like the ENTER key on a keyboard.

Active Channel

A Web site that has been enabled for Webcasting to information-receiving applications.

active control

In an environment capable of displaying multiple on-screen controls, the control that will be affected by current cursor movements, commands, and text entry.

Active Desktop

A technology delivered in Microsoft Internet Explorer and Microsoft Pocket Internet Explorer that allows you to include HTML documents, ActiveX controls, and Java language applets on your desktop.

active notification

The state of a user notification from the time the user is notified until the user handles the event. See also user notification.

active project

In Platform Builder, the project that will be built when you use the Buildor Rebuild Allcommands. See also project.

Active Server Pages (ASP)

An open application environment in which HTML pages, scripts, and ActiveX components are combined to create Web-based applications.

Active Template Library (ATL) for Windows CE

The Windows CE version of a C++ template library used to create ActiveX servers and other Component Object Model (COM) objects. ActiveX controls created with ATL are generally smaller and faster than those created with the Microsoft Foundation Classes. ATL for Windows CE supports most of the standard version of ATL, and includes additional items specific to Windows CE.

active window

In an environment capable of displaying multiple on-screen windows, the window containing the display or document that will be affected by current cursor movements, commands, and text entry. See also graphical user interface.


A set of technologies that enable software components to interact with one another in a networked environment, regardless of the language in which the components were created. ActiveX, which was developed as a proposed standard by Microsoft in the mid 1990s and is currently administered by the Open Group, is built on Microsoft's Component Object Model (COM). Currently, ActiveX is used primarily to develop interactive content for the World Wide Web, although it can be used in desktop applications and other applications. ActiveX controls can be embedded in Web pages to produce animation and other multimedia effects, interactive objects, and sophisticated applications. See also COM.

ActiveX client

An application or tool that calls an ActiveX object.

ActiveX object

An exposed object of the Component Object Model (COM).


See analog-to-digital converter .

address card

The fundamental unit of record in the Contacts database. Each address card contains information about an individual, such as name and address.

address mask

A number that, when compared by the computer with a network address number, will block out, or mask, all but the necessary data. For example, bits in the address corresponding to one in the mask are used, but bits corresponding to zero are ignored.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

A TCP/IP protocol for determining the hardware address, or physical address, of a node on a local area network connected to the Internet, when only the IP address, or logical address, is known. An ARP request is sent to the network, and the node that has the IP address responds with its hardware address. Although ARP technically refers only to finding the hardware address, and RARP, Reversed ARP, refers to the reverse procedure, ARP is commonly used for both senses. See also IP address, TCP/IP.

Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA)

ANSI group X3T10's official name for the disk drive interface standard commonly known as Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE). Also calledAT Attachment.


See Auxiliary Function Driver.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

A voluntary, nonprofit organization of U.S. business and industry groups formed in 1918 for the development of trade and communication standards. ANSI is the American representative of the International Standards Organization and has developed recommendations for the use of programming languages including FORTRAN, C, and COBOL.

American Standard Code for Information Exchange (ASCII)

A coding scheme using 7 or 8 bits that assigns numeric values to up to 256 characters, including letters, numerals, punctuation marks, control characters, and other symbols. ASCII was developed in 1968 to standardize data transmission among disparate hardware and software systems and is built into most minicomputers and all personal computers.

analog-to-digital converter (ADC)

A device that converts an analog signal, such as sound or voltage, to binary code for use by a computer.


An icon placed onto the taskbar to indicate that a user notification is active. Although taskbars can contain multiple annunciator icons for different applications, only one instance of an icon for any given application is displayed at one time.


See American National Standards Institute.

apartment threading model

A threading model that can be used only on the thread that created it. See also free threading modeland single threading model.


See application programming interface.


The point within the orbit of a satellite where the satellite is farthest from the earth.

application-defined message

A message created by an application to be used by its own windows or to communicate with windows in other processes. If an application creates its own message, the window procedure that receives the message must interpret it and provide the appropriate processing.

application notification

An application notification starts an application at a specified time or when a system event occurs. When an application starts as the result of a notification, the system specifies a command-line parameter that identifies the event that has occurred.

application programming interface (API)

A set of routines used by an application to direct the performance of procedures by a computer's operating system. For computers running a graphical user interface, an API manages an application's windows, icons, menus, and dialog boxes.

application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC)

An integrated circuit designed to perform a particular function by defining the interconnection of a set of basic circuit-building blocks drawn from a library provided by the circuit manufacturer.

Application Specific Standard Product (ASSP)

A validation process to determine whether or not a processor supports a given version of Windows CE. The ASSP validation process is designed to certify that Windows CE runs the same way on an ASSP as it does on an internally tested processor.

application switch

A hardware navigation control intended to launch or reactivate software applications.

application wizard

A wizard that automatically creates a set of starter files for a new component in a Platform Builder platform. Examples include the WCE Console Application Wizard and the Static Library Wizard. See wizard.

argument of the perigee

The angle, as measured from the center of the earth, between the perigee and the ascending node of orbit of a satellite. The argument of the perigee must be a value between 0 and 2 pi radians. See also ascending nodeand perigee.


See Address Resolution Protocol.

ascending node

The point within the orbit of a satellite where the satellite crosses the earth's equatorial plane while travelling from south to north.


See American Standard Code for Information Interchange.


See application-specific integrated circuit.


See Active Server Pages.


See Application Specific Standard Product.

asynchronous operation

1.A process in a multitasking system whose execution can proceed independently, or in the background. Other processes may be started before the asynchronous process has finished. 2.A data transmission method that allows characters to be sent at irregular intervals over a line by preceding each character with a start bit and following it with a stop bit. Compare synchronous operation.


See Advanced Technology Attachment.


The interface used by the IBM PC AT system for accessing CD-ROM devices.


See Active Template Library.

ATL for Windows CE

The Active Template Library for Windows CE. See Active Template Library.

audio driver model

The basic interface layer between the audio device drivers and the upper-layer application programming interfaces (APIs) and applications.


1.The process of verifying that a message comes from its stated source. 2.The process of verifying the identity or access level of a user, computer, or application.

Auto Indent

A Platform Builder feature that indents your source code using the default tab and indent sizes set on the Tabstab. See also Smart Indent.

automatic update

An operating system image update mechanism, provided by the dial-up boot loader, that is designed to be used by users and field technicians. The operating system image is downloaded using a modem connection. See also factory update, user-initiated update.


A technology based on the Component Object Model (COM), that enables interoperability among ActiveX components, including OLE components. Formerly referred to as OLE Automation. See also OLE.

Auxiliary Function Driver (AFD)

The Windows CE communication protocol manager.


background audio source

An audio source that is not controlled by the operating system, such as a radio, a CD player, or an auxiliary input device. Background audio sources may continue playing in the background when foreground audio sources are active. See also foreground audio source.

background graphics mode

Defines how background colors are mixed with window or screen colors for text and bitmap operations. See also drawing mode.


A light source for a backlit display.

backup authority

A trusted application running on a secure computer used as a storage medium.


1.The difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that an analog communications system can pass. For example, a telephone accommodates a bandwidth of 3,000 Hz, which is the difference between the lowest (300 Hz) and highest (3,300 Hz) frequencies it can carry. 2.The data transfer capacity of a digital communications system.

base font

The font glyphs that you obtain from another font when performing font linking. See also linked font.

base notification engine

One of the two parts of the notification subsystem in Windows CE. The base notification engine manages all the notifications registered on the system and triggers notifications when an event occurs.

.bat file

A text file that contains operating system commands. The operating system processes the commands sequentially.

.bib file

See binary image builder file (.bib).

bidirectional parallel port

An interface that supports two-way parallel communications between a device and a computer.

.bif file

A build information file. A file containing definitions of environment variables used in the process of building a platform.

binary editor

A resource editor that allows you to edit a resource at the binary level in either hexadecimal or ASCII format.

binary image builder file (.bib)

A file used by the ROM Image Builder tool, Romimage.exe, to determine which modules and files to combine when forming the ROM image, and where to place the modules in memory.

binary large object (BLOB)

1.A large piece of data, such as a bitmap, characterized by large field values, an unpredictable table size, and data that is formless from the perspective of an application. 2.A keyword that designates the BLOB structure that contains information about a block of data.

.bin file

A Windows CE binary image data format file. A .bin file is an image file that is generated by Romimage.exe that makes up the bits of the operating system image. See image file.

bit block transfer (blit)

The process of copying the bits that constitute a bitmap from one device context to another. For example, a bit block transfer can be used to move a bitmap stored in memory to the screen for display. The bits can also be altered during a bit block transfer. As a result, light and dark portions of an image can be reversed. Successive displays can thus be used to change the appearance of an image or to move it around on the screen.


A data structure in memory that represents information as a collection of individual bits. A bitmap represents a bit image. A bit map is also used in some systems to represent the blocks of storage on a disk, indicating whether each block is free (0) or in use (1).

blink time

The elapsed time, in milliseconds, required to invert the caret display. This value is half of the flash time.


See bit block transfer.


See binary large object.


A group of statements in a file that are treated as a unit. For example, a component file (.cec) contains component blocks, implementation blocks, and build method blocks. See also .cec file.

block cipher mode

An encryption scheme in which data is encrypted one block at a time. Compare stream cipher mode.

block mode

A synchronous method of calling the CeRapiInvokefunction by storing input parameters and output data in a single buffer.

board support package

In Platform Builder, the software that implements the hardware development platform drivers. The file name extension is .bsp. See hardware development platform.


A marker used to locate lines in a source file. A bookmark can be either named or unnamed.

boot loader

An application that is automatically run when a computer is switched on (booted). After first performing a few basic hardware tests, the boot loader loads and passes control to a larger loader application, which then typically loads the operating system. The boot loader normally resides in the computer's read-only memory (ROM).

boot loader image

The executable file that loads and starts an operating system image on a target device.

bootstrap loader

See boot loader.

bound command

A command that has a key combination assigned to it. See unbound command.

bounding rectangle

The smallest rectangle that completely surrounds an ellipse.


A text editor by Borland.


A tool used in painting applications to sketch or fill in areas of a drawing with the color and pattern currently in use. Painting applications that offer a variety of brush shapes can produce brushstrokes of varying width and, in some cases, shadowing or calligraphic effects.

brush origin

The coordinates of a mapped pixel.

.bsp file

See board support package.

build environment

The state of the development workstation and the directory structure when an application build begins.

build window

See command prompt build window.

built-in device driver

See native device driver.



See Certification Authority.

cabinet file

A self-contained file with a .cab extension used for application installation and setup. In a cabinet file, multiple files are compressed into one file. They are commonly found on Microsoft software distribution disks.


A special memory subsystem in which frequently used data values are duplicated for quick access. A memory cache stores the contents of frequently accessed RAM locations and the addresses where this data is stored. When the processor references an address in memory, the cache checks to see whether it holds that address. If it does hold the address, the data is returned to the processor; if it does not hold the address, a regular memory access occurs. A cache is useful when RAM accesses are slow compared with the microprocessor speed, because cache memory is always faster than main RAM memory.

callback function

A function that receives messages from the operating system. Callback functions are application-defined.


A flashing line, block, or bitmap that marks the location of the insertion point in a window's client area.

cascading menu

A hierarchical graphical menu system in which a side menu of subcategories is displayed when the pointer is placed on the main category.

cascading style sheets (CSS)

The implementation of extended fonts and styles in HTML through the use of an external file usually indicated with a file name extension .css.

case match

A text search that matches the capitalization of the text string.


In Platform Builder, an object that contains and displays all of the Windows CE operating system configurations, board support packages, transport layers, reference hardware drivers, and run-time libraries.


See International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee.


See Channel Definition Format.

.cec file

A component file. Platform Builder imports this text file to describe meta information about components and their relationships. The .cec file format is a list of blocks and subblocks enclosed in parentheses. The blocks are: component type, implementation, and build method.

central processing unit (CPU)

The computational and control unit of a computer. The CPU is the device that interprets and executes instructions. It has the ability to fetch, decode, and execute instructions and to transfer information to and from other resources over the computer's main data-transfer path, the bus. By definition, the CPU is the chip that functions as the "brain" of a computer. In some instances, however, the term encompasses both the processor and the computer's memory or, even more broadly, the main computer console, as opposed to peripheral equipment.


A Windows CE PC-based hardware development platform. See also hardware development platform.


A packet of data containing a public key and identification information. Every certificate is created and signed by Certification Authorities.

Certification Authority (CA)

An entity that attests to the identity of a person or an organization. The Certification Authority's primary function is to verify the identity of entities and issue digital certificates attesting to that identity.


The Windows CE Debug Shell tool, Cesh.exe. This shell enables you to transfer an operating system image from the development workstation to the target platform and provides you with a set of commands to assist in debugging processes running on the target platform.


See Common Flash Interface Specification.


A subscription to a Web site that conforms to the Channel Definition Format.

Channel Definition Format (CDF)

A specification developed by Microsoft and presented to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) that allows applications to send Web pages to users. Once a user subscribes to a CDF channel, any software that supports the CDF format automatically receives any new content posted on the channel's Web server. The default client subscription application for Internet channel broadcasting in Broadcast Architecture stores subscription information as .cdf files.

channel script

An application written in HTML that uses Visual Basic Script, JScript, JavaScript, and other scripting languages to specify the layout and behavior of a channel.

channel synchronization

The process of first downloading Mobile Channels content into a cache using the standard Internet Explorer 4.0 channel retrieval mechanism and then transferring it onto a Windows CE–based device. Channel synchronization makes it possible for users to access Mobile Channels using either a Windows CE–based device without a radio module or a Windows-based desktop computer when the device is not readily available. See also Mobile Channels.

check box

An interactive control found in graphical user interfaces. Check boxes are used to enable or disable one or more features or options from a set. When an option is selected, an x or a check mark appears in the box.

child window

A window that has the WS_CHILD style. A child window always appears within the client area of its parent window.


A combination of navigation controls used to perform a defined function. A chord is functionally similar to a keyboard accelerator. For example, on some Palm-size PCs, pressing and holding an Action button and then pressing an Exit button toggles the backlight.


See Common Internet File System.

CIFS redirector

A module through which one computer gains access to another. Its function is to reestablish disrupted connections and to package and send remote file-system requests to host targets.

cipher mode

A method used to encrypt data.


Data that has been encrypted.

class identifier (CLSID)

A universally unique identifier (UUID) that identifies a type of Component Object Model (COM) object. Each type of COM object item has its CLSID in the registry so that it can be loaded and used by other applications. For example, a spreadsheet may create worksheet items, chart items, and macrosheet items. Each of these item types has its own CLSID that uniquely identifies it to the system.


A tab in the Project Workspace window that displays the C++ classes defined in a project. ClassView gives you visual access to the classes and members in your project, including interfaces and dialog box resources. Expanding the folders shows the classes and expanding a class shows its members.


1.In object-oriented programming, a member of a class (group) that uses the services of another class to which it is not related. 2.A process, such as an application or task, that requests a service provided by another application. For example, a word processor that calls on a sort routine built into another application. The client process uses the requested service without having to know any working details about the other application or the service itself. 3.On a local area network or the Internet, a computer that accesses shared network resources provided by another computer, called a server.

client area

The portion of a window in which an application displays output, such as text or graphics. Also calledclient rectangle.

client coordinate

A coordinate that is relative to the upper-left corner of a window's client area.

clipping region

A subregion of the client area to which output is restricted. Clipping is used in Windows CE in a variety of ways. For example, word processing and spreadsheet applications clip keyboard input to keep it from appearing in the margins of a page or spreadsheet.


See class identifier.

code element

The smallest component of a written language that has semantic value. See also codespaceand code value.

code page

A file that the operating system uses to enable conversions from the ASCII character set to the Unicode character set. By default, Windows CE enables code page support based on the locales that are built into an operating system (OS) image. Each installed locale has exactly one ANSI-supported code page and one OEM-supported code page. When Windows CE changes a locale, it also changes the default ANSI and OEM code pages to match the new locale. Windows CE associates code pages to a given locale based on the code pages that are available on the system.


The logical grouping of code elements throughout the range of supported Unicode code values. See also code elementand code value.

code value

A single 16-bit number assigned to each code element that is defined by the Unicode standard. When referred to in text, each code value is listed in hexadecimal form following the prefix U. See also code elementand codespace.


See Common Object File Format.

cold boot

A startup process that begins with turning on the computer's power. Typically, a cold boot involves some basic hardware checking by the system, after which the operating system is loaded from disk into memory. Compare warm boot.

collection object

A group of related objects. See object.


See Component Object Model.

COM class

The definition of an object in code. In COM, class refers to the general object definition, whereas in C++, the class of an object is a data type.

command prompt build window

A command prompt window on a development workstation that is opened by double-clicking on a window shortcut. In the command prompt build window, you can call the Build Demo tool, Blddemo.bat, to create Windows CE components, generate source code, copy files to a release directory, and make an operating system image. You can create command prompt build windows for any of your platforms. Also calledbuild window. See also window shortcut.

commands block

A group of lines in a makefile file that contain one or more commands, each on its own line. No blank line can appear between the dependency or rule and the commands block. However, a line containing only spaces or tabs can appear; this line is interpreted as a null command, and no error occurs. Blank lines are permitted between command lines.

COM object

A programming structure that includes both data and functionality. A COM object is defined and allocated as a single unit. The only public access to a COM object is through the programming structure's interfaces. At a minimum, a COM object must support the IUnknowninterface, which maintains the object's existence while it is being used and provides access to the object's other interfaces.


A group of related functions that implement a particular feature of the Windows CE operating system, for example printing. A component is a subset of a module. The feature set of a Windows CE–based platform depends on which modules and components it supports. In the Platform Builder integrated development environment (IDE), both modules and components are considered components. Platform view displays all of the components in a platform. See also module.


A tab in the Platform Workspace window that displays the components in a platform.

COM port

Short for communications port, the logical address assigned by MS-DOS versions 3.3 and later, and Microsoft Windows to each of the four serial ports on an IBM personal computer or an IBM PC–compatible computer. COM ports also have come to be known as the actual serial ports on a computer's CPU where peripherals, such as printers, scanners, and external modems, are plugged in.

combo box

A control that combines an edit control with a list box. This allows the user to type in an entry or choose one from the list.

command band

A rebar control with a fixed band at the top that contains a toolbar with a Close( X) button, an OKbutton, and optionally, a Help( ?) button in the upper-right corner.

command bar

A control window that can contain buttons, combo boxes, and menu bars. Windows CE–based applications can use a command bar rather than a separate menu and toolbar to efficiently utilize available screen space.

common control

A standardized child window that an application uses in conjunction with another window to perform input/output tasks. A common control enables users to view and organize information and to set or change attributes and properties. Most common controls send the WM_NOTIFY message.

Common Flash Interface (CFI) Specification

A description that provides size and formatting information for linear flash memory.

Common Internet File System (CIFS)

A standard proposed by Microsoft that would compete directly with Sun Microsystems' Web Network File System. A system of file sharing of Internet or intranet files.

Common Object File Format (COFF)

In 32-bit programming, a format for executable and object files that is portable across platforms. The Microsoft implementation of COFF is derived from the UNIX specification for COFF, but includes additional headers for compatibility with the MS-DOS and 16-bit Windows operating systems. The Microsoft version is also called the portable executable (PE) file format.

Compact Flash

A group of related technologies for providing long-term storage through various types of nonvolatile memory.

Component Object Model (COM)

An open architecture for cross-platform development of client/server applications. It is based on object-oriented technology as agreed upon by Digital Equipment Corporation and Microsoft Corporation. COM defines the interface, similar to an abstract base class, IUnknown, from which all COM-compatible classes are derived.

compound file

A number of individual files bound together in one physical file where each individual file can be accessed as if it were a single physical file.


1.One of the Windows CE module and component combinations that are included in Platform Builder, for example, Minkern. 2. The type of executable file—release or debug—that Platform Builder creates when building a project.

configuration directory

The directory containing the directories and files for a Windows CE configuration.

configuration file

See source code configuration file, image configuration file.

connection-based session

A communications session that requires a connection to be established between hosts prior to an exchange of data.

connectionless session

A communications session that does not require a connection to be established between hosts prior to an exchange of data.

console application

1.A program that runs from the operating system's command line, in character-mode, rather than from a graphical user interface. 2.In Platform Builder, a character-mode application that uses a console window for its input and output. If necessary, the operating system creates a new console window that exists until the application terminates.

console window

A window that allows user input and displays output for a console application. See console application.

Contacts database

A collection of names, addresses, telephone numbers, and other information stored on a Windows CE device by the Contacts application. The database is divided into a set of records called address cards. The database contains any number of address cards, limited only by the amount of memory available on the device.


A network resource that contains other resources.

continuous resistive touch panel

See touch screen.

Contract button

Restores a window in docked mode to its previous size. See also Expand button.


A standardized child window on the screen that can be manipulated by the user to perform an action or display information. The most common controls are buttons, which allow the user to select options, and scroll bars, which allow the user to move through a document or position text in a window.

control code

One or more nonprinting characters used by a computer program to control the actions of a device.

control identifier

A value that uniquely identifies a control.

control style

A value, similar to a window style, that specifies the appearance and behavior of a control. The window procedure for the control uses the style to determine how to draw the control and process input.


A block of data a Web server stores on a client system. When a Web client user returns to the Web server site, the browser sends a copy of the cookie to the server. Cookies identify users, instruct the server to send a customized version of the requested Web page, submit account data for the user, and fulfill other administrative purposes.

.cpp file

A text file containing C++ source code. See also .cxx file.


See central processing unit.


Data used by a principal to establish the identity of the principal, such as a password or user name.

critical section

An object that protects a section of code from being accessed by more than one thread. A critical section is limited to only one process or dynamic-link library (DLL) and cannot be shared with other processes.

cryptographic service provider (CSP)

An independent module that performs cryptographic operations, such as creating and destroying keys. A cryptographic service provider consists of, at a minimum, a dynamic-link library (DLL) and a signature file.


See cryptographic service provider.


See cascading style sheets.


A small bitmap whose location on the screen is controlled by a pointing device, such as a mouse, pen, or trackball. Some Windows CE–based platforms support only the wait cursor—the spinning hourglass.

custom command

A speech command that is trained by the user. A custom command has a speaker-dependent template.

.cxx file

A text file containing either C or C++ source code. See also .cpp file.


.dat file

A file system file.

database volume

A file that contains all of the data that is necessary for a database. A database volume can be up to 16 MB.

database synchronization

The process of bringing two separate copies of a database into agreement.

database system application programming interface

A set of functions that enable you to create and manipulate Windows CE databases. Each database consists of an arbitrary number of records, and each record consists of at least one property.

database type identifier

A user-specified token, or number, that is attached to a database. The token can be used to identify related databases by associating the same value, or related values, with each database.


A data packet, containing sufficient delivery information, that can be routed through a packet-switching network without reliance on exchanges between the source and destination computer.

data link

A connection between any two devices capable of sending and receiving information, such as a computer and a printer or a main computer and a terminal. Sometimes the term is extended to include equipment, such as a modem, that enables transmission and receiving. Such devices follow protocols that govern data transmission.

date and time picker control (DTP)

A control that displays information about dates and times, and provides users with an easy way to modify this information.


A frame of reference for coordinates used to describe horizontal or vertical position on or near the surface of the earth.


See direct cable connection.

.db file

A database file.


See device-dependent bitmap.


See dynamic data exchange.


See device driver interface.


See Driver Development Kit.


See Driver Development Test Kit.

dead key

A key used with another key to create an accented character. A dead key, when pressed, produces no visible character, but indicates that the accent mark it represents is to be combined with the character produced by the next letter key pressed.

debugger window

A window that displays debugging information for an application. Examples include the Output window, the Watch window, and the Variables window.

debug configuration

A project that it is built with full symbolic debugging information and without optimization. The debug configuration is necessary for debugging. See symbolic debugging information.

debug serial port

An I/O channel that is used for debugging a device driver or platform. The debugging information is transmitted one bit at a time over a single wire.

Debug shell (Shell.exe)

An interface to communicate with Cesh.exe on a development workstation.

debug zone mask

A named bit mask in application source code that is used to turn a debug zone on or off.


The process of returning encrypted data to its original form.


Resets the signal magnitude on an audio channel. Compare pre-emphasis.

.def file

A module definition file. A .def file is used to export functions from a .dll file. Makefile.def is the file that contains rules that describe how to compile source code or link object modules to create a Windows CE project.


A resource on which another resource depends. If resource A depends on resource B, then B is a dependency of A.

dependency line

A .mak file entry that specifies one or more targets and zero or more dependents.

derived session key

A session key created by an application as needed. Before creating a derived session key, an application prompts the user for a password.

description block

The commands that run if the dependency is not current. Also calledan inference rule.


The process of converting a series of bytes back into an object. Compare serialize.


An on-screen work area that uses icons and menus to simulate the top of a desk. Its intent is to make a computer easier to use by enabling users to move pictures of objects and to start and stop tasks in much the same way as they would if they were working on a physical desktop.

desktop connectivity

The services required to connect a Windows CE–based device to a desktop computer.

desktop provider module

One of two DLLs that comprise a service provider. The desktop provider module handles the bulk of communication with the service manager and implements two COM interfaces. See also service providerand service manager.

development workstation

The PC-based computer on which you install Windows CE development toolkits and develop software for your Windows CE–based platform.


1.A generic term for a computer subsystem. Printers, serial ports, and disk drives are often referred to as devices; such subsystems frequently require their own controlling software, called device drivers. 2.A hardware feature that can—or must—be part of the target platform. For example, a built-in device could be a low-battery notification LED, while a PC Card modem is an installable device. See also device driver.

device context

A GDI structure containing information that governs the display of text and graphics on a particular output device. A device context stores, retrieves, and modifies the attributes of graphic objects and specifies graphic modes. The graphic objects stored in a device context include a pen for line drawing, a brush for painting and filling, a font for text output, a bitmap for copying or scrolling, a palette for defining the available colors, and a region for clipping.

device-dependent bitmap (DDB)

An array of bits that can only be used with a particular display or printer.

device driver

A software component that permits a computer system to communicate with a device. In most cases, the driver also manipulates the hardware in order to transmit the data to the device. However, device drivers associated with application packages typically perform only the data translation; these higher-level drivers then rely on lower-level drivers to actually send the data to the device. Many devices will not work properly—if at all—without the correct device drivers installed in the system.

device driver interface (DDI)

1.The interface between applications and the device drivers. 2.A set of functions implemented in the model device driver and called by the Graphics, Windowing, and Events Subsystem (GWES).

Driver Development Kit (DDK)

A set of tools and libraries that enable programmers to write Windows-based software used to run hardware devices such as printers.

Driver Development Test Kit (DDTK)

A set of tools and libraries that enable you to test the porting of your device drivers to the Windows CE operating system.

device-independent bitmap (DIB)

An array of bits combined with several structures that specify the width and height of the bitmap image (in pixels), the color format of the device with which the image was created, and the resolution of the device used to create that image. A DIB generally has its own color table, and can therefore be displayed on a variety of devices.

Device Manager

An application, included on all Windows CE–based platforms, that manages stream interface device drivers. The device manager handles loading and unloading stream interface device drivers, identifying the correct driver for plug-and-play devices, managing running device drivers, and notifying stream interface device drivers of power-up and power-down events.

device partnership

A device partnership is a registry key on a Windows CE device that a desktop computer uses to identify a Windows CE device to which a desktop computer is connected. The key defines values for synchronization, file conversions, and backup and restore information, which enable multiple Windows CE devices to connect to the same desktop computer. A device partnership is created the first time you connect a Windows CE device to a desktop computer.

device provider module

One of two DLLs that comprise a service provider. The device provider module handles communication between the service manager and the device. See also service providerand service manager.


See Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

dialog box

A temporary window that contains controls. You can use it to display status information and to get user input.

dialog box procedure

An application-defined callback function that the system calls when it has input for a dialog box or has tasks for a dialog box to carry out.

dialog box template

A binary description of a dialog box and the controls it contains. You can create this template as a resource to be loaded from the application's executable file, or created in memory while the application runs.

dialog editor

A resource editor that allows you to create and edit dialog boxes.

dialog unit (DLU)

A unit of horizontal or vertical distance within a dialog box. A horizontal DLU is the average width of the current dialog box font divided by 4. A vertical DLU is the average height of the current dialog-box font divided by 8.

dial-up boot loader (DUB)

A tool for upgrading a version of an operating system on a target device.

dial-up boot loader (DUB) boot code

System code that runs when the target device boots. The code can determine whether to boot into the target device operating system or the dial-up boot loader operating system.

dial-up boot loader (DUB) operating system

Part of the Windows CE operating system that includes code for downloading and installing an operating system image and programming the operating system image to flash memory.

Dial-Up Networking

A Windows CE–based application that enables remote users to connect to a network.


See device-independent bitmap.

digital signature

Binary data attached to a message that uniquely identifies a sender. A digital signature can be used with hash values to ensure that a transmitted message has not been tampered with.

direct cable connection (DCC)

A RAS networking connection between two computers, or between a computer and a Windows CE–based device, which uses a serial or parallel cable directly connected between the systems instead of a modem and a phone line.

direct memory access (DMA)

Memory access that does not involve the microprocessor and is frequently used for data transfer directly between memory and an "intelligent" peripheral device, such as a disk drive.

dirs file

A file that lists the subdirectories which contain source code or additional dirs files. Build.exe uses a dirs file to determine which subdirectories have source code that needs building.

discrete speech recognition

Speech recognition that recognizes words that are delineated by pauses.


See dynamic-link library.


See dialog unit.


See direct memory access.


See Domain Name System.

dockable window

A window that can be attached to a docking area or that can float anywhere on the screen. A dockable window has two display modes: floating or docked. See floating mode, docked mode.

docked mode

One of the operational states of a dockable window or toolbar. In docked mode, a window is attached to a docking area along any of the four borders of the main Platform Builder window. A toolbar docks vertically on a vertical docking area and horizontally on a horizontal docking area. See dockable window.

document window

A framed child window that may contain source code or other text. A document window can be displayed in a cascade or tiled arrangement.

Domain Name System (DNS)

A name service that resolves system names to current IP addresses and uses a tiered or hierarchical model to pass name resolutions between domains.

dotted decimal notation

The process of formatting an Internet Protocol (IP) address as a 32-bit identifier made up of four groups of numbers, with each group separated by a period. For example, 123.432.154.12.


The process of converting a base class pointer or reference to a derived class pointer or reference.


A technique for moving or copying data between applications, between windows within an application, or within a single window in an application. The user selects the data to be transferred and drags the data to the desired destination. Windows CE supports drag-and-drop operations. However, nondefault drag-and-drop operations, equivalent to right mouse button drag-and-drop operations, are not supported.

drawing mode

Defines how foreground colors are mixed with window or screen colors for pen, brush, bitmap, and text operations. See also background graphics mode.

drop-down menu

A menu that drops from the menu bar when requested and remains open without further action until the user closes it or chooses a menu item.

DTP control

See date and time picker control.


See dial-up boot loader.

dummy file filter

A means for transferring files of nonstandard or possibly unknown extensions for which no translation is necessary. Passing the file through the dummy filter keeps the No Converter Selecteddialog box from appearing.

dynamic data exchange (DDE)

An interprocess communication method that allows two or more applications running simultaneously to exchange data and commands.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

A TCP/IP protocol that enables a network connected to the Internet to automatically assign a temporary Internet protocol (IP) address to a host when the host connects to the network.

dynamic-link library (DLL)

A set of autonomous functions that any application can use. DLLs are a set of source code modules with each module containing a set of functions.



See Electronic Codebook.


A value that specifies how much the shape of the elliptical orbit of a satellite deviates from a circular path. Eccentricity equals the distance between the foci of the orbital ellipse divided by one-half the length of the major axis of the orbital ellipse. The eccentricity must be between 0 and 1. Values closer to 0 indicate that the orbit is closer to a circular path. See also focusand major axis.

edit control

A rectangular window in which a user can enter and edit text from the keyboard. An edit control is also referred to as a text box.


See Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.

Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM)

A nonvolatile storage device that uses a technique similar to the floating gates in EPROMs but with the capability to discharge the floating gate electrically. Usually bytes or words can be erased and reprogrammed individually during system operation.

Electronic Codebook (ECB)

A cipher mode in which each plain text block is encrypted individually. ECB uses no feedback. This means that blocks of plaintext that are identical, either in the same message or in a different message encrypted with the same key, are transformed into identical cipher blocks. Initialization vectors cannot be used with the ECB cipher mode. If a single bit of the cipher block is garbled, then the entire corresponding plain text block is also garbled.


Software code or commands built into their carriers. For example, applications insert embedded printing commands into a document to control printing and formatting. Low-level assembly is embedded in higher-level languages, such as C, to provide more capabilities or better efficiency.


The process of transforming data into a form unreadable by anyone without a secret key.

encryption, 128-bit

A high level of encryption. Uses a 128-bit key to scramble the contents of a file or data packet to make the data unreadable without the decryption key.

encryption, 40-bit

A medium level of encryption. Uses a 40-bit key to scramble the contents of a file or data packet to make the data unreadable without the decryption key.

end-of-interrupt (EOI) signal

A message sent by the hardware interrupt manager indicating that the current interrupt has finished. Functions that process EOIs generally perform any hardware actions needed to facilitate the next interrupt.


1.A section of an application that determines how that application manages and manipulates a type of data. 2.An application or module with an open API to which an application passes data in order to access the engine's processing capabilities.

environment variable

An element of the operating system environment, such as a path, a directory name, or a configuration string. Environment variables are typically set within batch files.


A text editor by Lugaru.


A widely used LAN developed by Xerox, Digital, and Intel. Ethernet networks connect up to 1,024 nodes at 10 megabits per second over twisted pair, coaxial cable, and optical fiber.

Ethernet debugging

A method of connecting a development workstation to a target device using a standard Ethernet network for the purpose of debugging the target device.


An event is an occurrence that triggers a notification. Windows CE supports timer and system events.

event-driven operating system

An operating system that constantly evaluates and responds to sets of events, such as keystrokes or mouse movements.

event object

A synchronization object that enables one thread to notify another that an event has occurred. Event objects are useful when a thread needs to know when to perform its task. For example, a thread that copies data to an archive needs to be notified when new data is available. By using an event object to notify the copying thread of the availability of new data, the thread can perform its task as soon as possible.

exception handling

The process of dealing with exceptions, or errors, as they arise during application execution. Exceptions occur when an application executes abnormally due to conditions outside the application's control. Windows CE does not support C++ exception handling.

execute in place (XIP)

The process of executing code directly from read-only memory (ROM), rather than loading it from random access memory (RAM) first. Executing the code in place, instead of copying the code into RAM for execution, saves system resources. Applications in other file systems, such as on a PC Card storage device, cannot be executed in this way.

Exit button

A hardware navigation control that functions as the ESC key on a keyboard.

Expand button

Enlarges a window in docked mode to fill all of the space available within a larger window or on the screen. See Contract button.

Export SDK tool

Exports a custom software development kit (SDK). Application developers can import an SDK into a Windows CE toolkit and write applications for a custom platform.

extension key

An entry in the registry, corresponding to the extension of a given file, that specifies which file filter will handle conversions for that file type.


factory update

An operating system image update mechanism, provided by the dial-up bool loader, that is designed to program the Windows CE operating system on the factory floor. The operating system image is downloaded using a high-speed parallel connection.   See also automatic update, user-initiated update.


See file allocation table.

.fdf file

A binary registry file that is included in an OS image and is always loaded during a cold boot. This file initializes the system registry on the target device.

field-programmable gate array (FPGA)

A gate array with a logic network that can be developed after it has been included in a target device.

file allocation table (FAT)

A table or list maintained by some operating systems to manage disk space used for file storage. Files on a disk are stored, as space allows, in fixed-size groups of bytes (characters) rather than from beginning to end as contiguous strings of text or numbers. A single file can thus be scattered in pieces over many separate storage areas. A file allocation table maps available disk storage space so that it can mark flawed segments that should not be used and can find and link the pieces of a file. In MS-DOS, the file allocation table is commonly known as the FAT.

file filter

A Windows CE dynamic-link library (DLL) that controls the transfer of data between a desktop computer and a Windows CE–based device.

file handle

A token, or number, that the operating system uses to identify or refer to an open file or, sometimes, to a device.

file pointer

The offset into an open file that the operating system maintains internally. It points to the starting location where data is read from or written to when a read or write operation is performed on an open file. The file pointer can be moved to any location within the file by a seek operation.

file system

In an operating system, the overall structure in which files are named, stored, and organized. A file system consists of files, directories, and the information needed to locate and access these items. The term can also refer to the portion of an operating system that translates requests for file operations from an application into low-level, sector-oriented tasks that can be understood by the drivers controlling the disk drives.

file system application interface

A subset of the standard Win32 file system functions. These functions let you create directories and data files, read and write file data, and retrieve file and directory information.

file system driver (FSD)

A user-written DLL that the operating system loads to interface to a user-created installable file system. The functions that access an installable file system are implemented in the DLL. See also installable file system.


A tab in the Project Workspace window that displays the files associated with a Platform Builder project. The files are organized in expandable folders according to categories such as source files and header files.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

The protocol used for copying files to and from remote computer systems on a network using a Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), such as the Internet. This protocol also allows users to use FTP commands to work with files, such as listing files and directories on the remote system.


Software routines stored in read-only memory (ROM). Unlike random access memory (RAM), read-only memory stays intact even in the absence of electrical power. Startup routines and low-level input/output instructions are stored in firmware. It falls between software and hardware in terms of ease of modification. See also RAMand ROM.

firmware monitor

An optional boot loader element used to debug a boot loader. A firmware monitor supports dumping memory contents, disassembling code, and downloading images. You can add additional diagnostic commands for low-level hardware tests.

first order clock correction

A measurement of how much the atomic clock on a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite drifts over time.

flash card

See PC Card storage device.

flash memory

Semiconductor memory that can operate as ROM but, on an activating signal, can rewrite its contents as though it were RAM.

flash time

The elapsed time, in milliseconds, required to display, invert, and restore the caret display. This value is twice as much as the blink time.

floating mode

One of the operational states of a dockable window. In floating mode, a window can appear anywhere on your screen and has a thin title bar. A floating window is always on top of all other windows.   See dockable window.


1.A temporary property of a user interface object, such as a window, view, dialog box, or button, that permits the object to receive keyboard input from the user. 2. One of the two points that determine the shape of an ellipse. The sum of the distances between any point on the ellipse and each of the foci is constant.

focus window

The window that is currently receiving keyboard input. The focus window is always the active window, a descendant of the active window, or NULL.

font mapping

The process of matching an application-defined description of a font with a font that is physically stored on a device or in an operating system. An application-defined font is called a logical font and a font on a device or in an operating system is called a physical font. See also logical fontand physical font.

foreground audio source

An audio source that is controlled entirely by the operating system, such as speech recognition tones and text-to-speech (TTS). Depending on user settings, a foreground audio source can partially or fully mute background audio sources while they play. See also background audio source.

foreground thread

The thread used to create the window with which the user is currently working.

foreground window

The window with which the user is currently working. The system assigns a slightly higher priority to the thread used to create the foreground window than it does to other threads.


An ActiveX control container that you customize to create a user interface for your application. A form contains a collection of controls, such as speech controls, power list boxes, audio controls, and tabber controls. A form displays information on a screen.

Forms Manager

An ActiveX control container that manages forms, providing focus management, menus, help, and event sinks.


See field-programmable gate array.


The process of separating a datagram into smaller pieces for routing between networks.

free threading model

A model in which an object can be used on any thread at any time. See also apartment threading modeland single threading model.


See file system driver.


See File Transfer Protocol.



A device that connects networks using different communications protocols.


See graphics device interface.


See geometric dilution of precision.


A model for the surface of the earth based on gravitational factors. A geoid approximates a sea-level surface and is the reference for most land elevations and ocean depths that appear on maps and charts.

geometric dilution of precision (GDOP)

A numerical factor that specifies the portion of the error in a Global Positioning System (GPS) position, and time measurement that results from the geometry of the GPS satellites used to make the measurement.

Global Positioning System (GPS)

A space-based radio navigation system that consists of 24 satellites and ground support. This system provides a user with accurate information about vehicle position and velocity.


The process of developing an application core whose feature and code designs do not make assumptions based on a single language or locale, and whose source code simplifies the creation of different language editions of an application.

global variable

A variable whose value can be accessed and modified by any statement in an application, and not merely within a single routine in which it is defined.


See Global Positioning System.

graphics device interface (GDI)

The Windows CE subsystem responsible for displaying text and images on display devices and printers. The GDI processes graphical function calls from a Windows-based application. It then passes those calls to the appropriate device driver, which generates the output on the display hardware. By acting as a buffer between applications and output devices, the GDI presents a device-independent view of the world for the application while interacting in a device-dependent format with the device. Because of the smaller memory footprint of Windows CE–based devices, Windows CE supports only a subset of the standard Win32 GDI.

graphics editor

A resource editor that allows you to draw images, create toolbar bitmaps, and edit GIF and JPEG files.

graphics object

The pen, brush, bitmap, palette, region, font, and path associated with a device context. Windows CE does not support paths.

Graphics, Windowing, and Events Subsystem (GWES)

The Windows CE module that contains the graphics and windowing functionality needed to display text and images and to receive user input. It includes all the functionality needed to create and manage windows, controls, dialog boxes, and resources such as icons and menus. It also processes all user input. GWES includes the graphics device interface, which displays text and images on display devices and printers.


A sequence of shades ranging from black through white, used in computer graphics to add detail to images or to represent a color image on a monochrome output device. Like the number of colors in a color image, the number of shades of gray depends on the number of bits stored per pixel. Grays may be represented by actual gray shades, by halftone dots, or by dithering.

gripper bar

A gripper bar is a tall, thin rectangle with a dark stripe running through it that appears on a rebar or a command band control. By touching and dragging a gripper bar with a stylus, a user can reposition a rebar or command bar. Gripper bars are especially useful for bringing off-screen rebar or command bar controls into view.

group box

A rectangular area within a dialog box in which you can group together other controls that are semantically related. The controls are grouped by drawing a rectangular border around them. Any text associated with the group box is displayed in its upper-left corner.


A globally unique identifier. See universally unique identifier.


A visual device that appears as a blue dotted line across a dialog box. Guides assist a user in aligning controls accurately within a dialog box.


See Graphics, Windowing, and Events Subsystem.



1.A pointer to a pointer; that is, a variable that contains the address of another variable, which in turn contains the address of the desired object. In certain operating systems, the handle points to a pointer stored in a fixed location in memory, whereas that pointer points to a movable block. If applications start from the handle whenever they access the block, the operating system can perform memory management tasks such as garbage collection without affecting the applications. 2.Any token that an application can use to identify and access an object such as a device, a file, a window, or a dialog box. 3.One of several small squares displayed around a graphical object in a drawing application. The user can move or reshape the object by clicking on a handle and dragging.

hardware-assisted profiling

An application programming interface (API) that supports process-level tracking. You can use hardware-assisted profiling to write an application that can be notified when a process or thread is created or terminated, or when a thread is scheduled to run.

hardware development platform

The hardware upon which a Windows CE platform runs. Hardware development platforms can simulate a variety of embedded devices. Platform Builder supports two: the Hitachi D9000 (ODO) and the Windows CE PC-based hardware development platform (CEPC). See board support package, CEPC, ODO.

hardware key

1.A security device connected to an I/O port to permit the use of a particular software package on that computer. The use of the hardware key permits backup copying of software but prevents its unlicensed use on additional computers. Also calleddongle. 2.Any physical device used to secure a computer system from unauthorized access, such as the lock on the front of the cabinet of some personal computers.

hardware reference platform for Windows CE

A standardized set of hardware that is used to develop, test, and certify the quality of a Windows CE–based platform.

hash value

A value used in creating digital signatures. This value is generated by imposing a hashing algorithm onto a message. This value is then transformed, or signed, by a private key to produce a digital signature. Also calledmessage digest.

hashing algorithm

A formula used to generate hash values and digital signatures.

header control

A horizontal window that is usually positioned above columns of data. It is divided into partitions that correspond to the columns, and each partition contains the title for the column below it.


A portion of memory reserved for an application to use for the temporary storage of data structures whose existence or size cannot be determined until the application is running. The application can request free memory from the heap to hold such elements, use it as necessary, and later free the memory.


The way in which a Windows CE–based device manages a memory shortage by requesting applications to free memory that is not currently needed.

hibernation threshold

The point at which the system enters a limited-memory state.

high-resolution performance counter

Hardware that provides high-resolution timing, which is useful in improving the performance of applications.

High Sierra Specification

An industry wide format specification for the logical structure, file structure, and record structure on a compact disc.


A Handheld PC.


A location in a routine or application in which the programmer can connect or insert other routines for the purpose of debugging or enhancing functionality. Windows CE does not support hooking.


A device on a TCP/IP network that can be identified by a logical IP address.

host identifier

An address that identifies a workstation, server, router, or other TCP/IP host within a network. Each host address must be unique to the network identifier.

host-side component

An application developer's desktop computer that contains a software development kit (SDK) and a Visual C++ or Visual Basic toolkit. The Windows CE toolkits create the host-side component after receiving a platform SDK. The platform SDK contains source files for the different transport technologies that are enabled on a device and selected during the SDK build process. See target-side component.

hot key

A keystroke or combination of keystrokes that switches the user to a different application, often a terminate-and-stay-resident (TSR) application or the operating system user interface. Hot keys generate a WM_HOTKEY message.

hot spot

The pixel in a cursor that marks the exact screen location affected by a mouse or pen action, such as a button click. Messages include the coordinates of a hot spot.


See Hypertext Markup Language.


See Hypertext Transfer Protocol.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

A markup language derived from the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Used to create a text document with formatting specifications that tells a software browser how to display the page or pages included in the document.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) viewer control

1.A control that provides programmers with the ability to implement the Windows CE Pocket Internet Explorer and the Help engine. It also provides independent software vendors (ISVs) with the ability to implement additional viewers based on the HTML viewer control. 2.A control that enables a user to render HTML text, display embedded images, and notify an application of user events.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

The client/server protocol used to access information on the Web.



See Information Access Service.


See Internet Control Message Protocol.


1. A small image displayed on the screen to represent an object that can be manipulated by the user. By serving as visual mnemonics and allowing the user to control certain computer actions without having to remember commands or type them at the keyboard, icons are a significant factor in the user-friendliness of graphical user interfaces. 2. A special bitmap designed to visually represent an application or document. Usually the icon is assigned to a frame window so that the image appears in the window's title bar. When assigned to an application's main window, the icon resource is called the program icon or application icon.


See integrated development environmentand Integrated Device Electronics.

idle priority

One of three thread priority groups. Idle priority indicates that a thread's processing can wait until all other threads have finished running. See also interrupt priorityand main priority.


See Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.


A Platform Builder configuration that builds a demonstration system by using Microsoft Internet Explorer components.


See independent hardware vendor.


See Internet Information Services.


See input method.


See operating system image, screen image.

image configuration file

A file that Makeimg.exe uses to create an operating system image. Image configuration files include .bib, .dat, .reg, .db and .str files. See also configuration file.

image file

A file that is generated by Romimage.exe that makes up the bits of the operating system image. An image file can be one of the following three formats: Windows CE binary image data format (.bin), Motorola 32-bit binary data format (.sre), or absolute binary data format (.abx). See .bin file, .sre file, .abx file.

image list

A collection of images that are all the same size, such as bitmaps or icons.


See Input Method Editor.

.ime file

An Input Method Editor (IME) file.


See Input Method Manager.


In Platform Builder, an implementation contains the functionality necessary to implement the features contained in a type. There can be more than one implementation for a given type. You use the Platform Builder Catalog and Component view to view implementations and to add them to a platform.


A client companion to Microsoft Outlook 97, a messaging and collaboration client. Inbox can be bundled with Windows CE–based platforms.


A measurement that describes the angle formed between the plane defined by the orbit of a satellite and the equatorial plane of the earth. The value of the inclination must be between 0 and pi radians.

independent hardware vendor (IHV)

A company that manufactures devices that connect to Windows CE–based platforms, such as PC Card storage devices. IHVs must also produce stream interface device drivers for their devices. See also stream interface device driver.


A CAB Wizard input file that specifies information about the application.

inference rule

See description block.

Information Access Service (IAS)

A part of an IrDA infrared communication protocol used so that devices can learn about the services offered by another device. See also Infrared Data Association.

infrared (IR)

Of or relating to the range of invisible radiation wavelengths from about 750 nanometers, just longer than red in the visible spectrum, to 1 millimeter, on the border of the microwave region.

Infrared Data Association (IrDA)

The industry organization of computer, component, and telecommunications vendors who have established the standards for infrared communication between computers and peripheral devices such as printers. Windows CE supports the IrDA standard through the Winsock application programming interface (API). Windows CE–based applications that communicate over serial cables using the Winsock API communicate over IrDA-compliant IR links with only minimal reprogramming.

Infrared Link Access Protocol (IrLAP)

A protocol, based on the High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) protocol, designed to control an infrared link. IrLAP provides for discovery of devices, their connection over an infrared link, and reliable data delivery between devices.

Infrared Link Management Protocol (IrLMP)

A service multiplexing protocol that provides for multiple sessions over a single point-to-point link.

Infrared Sockets (IrSock)

An implementation of the Winsock protocol.


An initialization file that registers an application with an application manager. It contains information such as the location of .cab files, icon files, and the installation directory.

initialization vector

A random number used as a starting point when encrypting data. Two identical packets of data encrypted with the same key can result in two different packets of ciphertext, if each packet of data is encrypted with different initialization vectors.

inline file

A file that contains text you specify in a makefile file. An inline file's name can be used in commands as input or it can pass commands to the operating system. An inline file is created when a command that creates the file is run. Inline files can be temporary or permanent.

input context

An internal structure, maintained by the IME, that contains information about the status of the IME and is used by IME windows. By default, the system creates and assigns an input context to each thread. Within the thread, this default input context is a shared resource and is associated with each newly created window.

input method (IM)

A COM component that allows the user to input text using a touch screen. For example, a Palm-size PC supports input methods for a graphical representation of a keyboard and a character recognizer.

Input Method Editor (IME)

An engine that converts keystrokes into phonetic and ideograph characters, along with a dictionary of ideograph words, for conversion of characters into non-Roman, particularly Asian, characters.

Input Method Manager (IMM)

A component supported in Windows CE version 2.10 and later that handles communication between IMEs and applications.

input panel

A window control that supports various input methods, such as writing or drawing.

installable device driver

See stream interface device driver.

installable file system

A file system that is accessed through a file system driver (FSD) that is loaded onto a device by the user, rather than accessed by the built-in file system. An installable file system may be implemented differently from the built-in file system. For example, an installable file system may prevent a user from deleting files, provide automatic compression of files, or use a structure for internal information different from that used by the built-in file system. See also file system driver.

installable file system driver

See file system driver.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

An organization of professional electrical and electronics engineers that is notable for developing standards for hardware and software.

instrumented kernel profiling

Analyzes kernel calls by recording all call times, including minimum, maximum, and average times.

integrated development environment (IDE)

In the Microsoft Developer Studio, an integrated set of Windows-based tools for building, testing, and refining an application. The IDE includes a variety of editors, project build facilities, compilers, an incremental linker (for C++), a class viewer, and an integrated debugger. The IDE enables you to create, test, and refine your applications and Web sites all in one place.

Integrated Device Electronics (IDE)

A type of disk-drive interface in which the controller electronics reside on the drive itself, eliminating the need for a separate adapter card.


A Microsoft technology that allows you to analyze your source code by showing class definitions and comments when you move your cursor over a function. IntelliSense also completes function names for you when you type them.


1.The point at which a connection is made between two elements so that they can work with one another. 2.Software that enables an application to work with the user (the user interface, which can be a command-line interface, menu-driven, or a graphical user interface), with another application, such as the operating system, or with the computer's hardware. 3.A card, plug, or other device that connects pieces of hardware with the computer so that information can be moved from place to place. 4.A networking or communications standard that defines ways for different systems to connect and communicate.

International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT)

An organization whose functions are now part of the United Nations International Telecommunications Union (ITU), which recommends use of communications standards.

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

A network-layer Internet protocol that provides error correction and other information relevant to Internet Protocol (IP) packet processing, such as testing whether a particular computer is connected to the Internet (pinging) by sending a packet to its IP address and waiting for a response. For example, it can let the IP software on one machine inform another machine about an unreachable destination. See also ping.

Internet Information Services (IIS)

Microsoft's brand of Web server software, using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to deliver World Wide Web documents. It incorporates various functions for security, allows for CGI applications, and also provides for Gopher and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) servers. In versions 4.0 and earlier, IIS was named Internet Information Server.

Internet Protocol (IP)

Provides the protocol for connecting hosts over a network, breaking messages into packets, addressing the packets, routing them from the sender to the destination network, and reassembling the packets into the original message at the destination. IP corresponds to the network layer in the International Organization for Standardization Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) model. See also ISO/OSI model.

Internet Protocol (IP) address

A 32-bit (4-byte) binary number that uniquely identifies a host computer connected to the Internet to other Internet hosts, for the purposes of communication through the transfer of packets. An IP address is expressed in "dotted quad" format, consisting of the decimal values of its four bytes, separated with periods; for example, The first one, two, or three bytes of the IP address, assigned by InterNIC Registration Services, identify the network the host is connected to; the remaining bits identify the host itself.


Of or pertaining to communications between connected networks. Often used to refer to communication between one local area network and another over the Internet or another wide-area network.


A request for attention from the processor. When the processor receives an interrupt, it suspends its current operations, saves the status of its work, and transfers control to a special routine known as an interrupt handler, which contains the instructions for dealing with the particular situation that caused the interrupt. Interrupts can be generated by various hardware devices to request service or report problems, or by the processor itself in response to application errors or requests for operating-system services. Interrupts are the processor's way of communicating with the other elements that make up a computer system. A hierarchy of interrupt priorities determines which interrupt request will be handled first if more than one request is made. An application can temporarily disable some interrupts if it needs the full attention of the processor to complete a particular task.

interrupt identifier (interrupt ID)

A unique value used by the kernel to identify the device that raised the interrupt and that requires more processing. The kernel then uses the interrupt identifier to indicate whether all handling is complete, or whether to launch an interrupt service thread that handles further processing by the device driver.

interrupt priority

One of three thread priority groups. Interrupt priority is reserved for operating system threads. See also idle priorityand main priority.

interrupt request (IRQ) line

A hardware line over which a device, such as an I/O port, keyboard, or disk drive, can send interrupt requests to the CPU. Interrupt request lines are built into the computer's internal hardware and are assigned different levels of priority so that the CPU can determine the sources and relative importance of incoming service requests.

interrupt service routine (ISR)

A small subroutine that resides in the OEM adaptation layer (OAL). The ISR executes in kernel mode and has direct access to the hardware registers. Its sole job is to determine what interrupt identifier to return to the interrupt support handler. Essentially, ISRs map physical interrupts onto logical interrupts.

interrupt service thread (IST)

A thread created by a device driver to wait on an event.

interrupt support handler

A routine that registers a driver so that it can handle a particular interrupt and deregister it later. It also enables communication between the interrupt service routine, the interrupt service thread, and subroutines within the OEM adaptation layer (OAL).




See Internet Protocol.


See infrared.


An infrared implementation of the serial line communication driver. IrCOMM is supported by Windows CE.


See Infrared Data Association.


See Infrared Link Access Protocol.


See Infrared Link Management Protocol.


A protocol for printing through a serial infrared connection.


See interrupt request line.


See Infrared Sockets.

ISO/OSI model

A layered architecture that standardizes levels of service and types of interaction for computers exchanging data through a communications network. The ISO/OSI model separates computer-to-computer communications into seven layers.


See interrupt service routine.


See interrupt service thread.


Independent software vendor.

item script

An application written in HTML and Visual Basic Script, JScript, JavaScript, or other scripting languages that specifies the behavior of an item within a channel.


jump page

An object that tells a device where to start executing an operating system image.



The main module of the Windows CE operating system. The kernel provides system services for managing threads, memory, and resources.

kernel call

A kernel routine that causes the kernel to turn off preemption and not allow other threads to run.

kernel debugger

A debugging application that refines and debugs an operating system image. The kernel debugger works like an application debugger except that it is capable of debugging operating systems in addition to applications.


A field or expression used to identify a record; often used as the index field for a database table.

key binary large object (key BLOB)

A key BLOB provides a way to store keys outside of the cryptographic service provider (CSP) and are used to transfer keys securely from one CSP to another. A key BLOB consists of a standard header followed by data representing the key.

key BLOB

See key binary large object.

keyboard accelerator

1.In applications, a key or key combination used to perform a defined function. Also calledshortcut key. 2.In hardware, a device that speeds or enhances the operation of one or more subsystems, leading to improved application performance.

key container

A place where cryptographic key pairs are stored. Each key container stores all of the key pairs belonging to a specific user.

key pair

A private key and a public key generated as part of the operating system image building process.



See local area network.


See language identifier.

language identifier (LANGID)

A standard international numeric abbreviation for a country or geographical region. An LANGID is a 16-bit value that consists of a primary language identifier and a secondary language identifier. A LANGID is constructed using the MAKELANGIDmacro. See also locale identifier.

launch entry

A registry entry that specifies the order in which applications launch.

layered device driver

A sample device driver that comes with the Platform Builder. It contains two layers: a model device driver (MDD) layer and a platform-dependent driver (PDD) layer. See also model device driverand platform-dependent driver.

layout grid

A framework of parallel dotted lines that assists you in precisely positioning screen objects. When the layout grid is active, controls appear to snap to the lines as if magnetized.


See logical block address.


See locale identifier.


On an audio compact disc, the lead-in contains a table of contents for the track layout.


On an audio compact disc, the lead-out indicates the end of data.

.lib file

A Common Object File Format (COFF) file generated by the Microsoft 32-bit Library Manager tool for standard and import libraries. The default file name extension for these files is .lib.

linked font

The font glyphs that you add to a base font when performing font linking. See also base font.

list box

A control that enables the user to choose one option from a list of possibilities. The list box appears as a box, displaying the currently selected option, next to a button marked with a down arrow. When the user clicks or taps the button, the list appears. The list has a scroll bar if there are more options than the list has room to show.

list view

A common control that displays a collection of items, such as files or folders. Each item has an icon and a label.

.lnk file

A shortcut file.

load file

A file that contains a list of commands for the Loadfunction to process. You use load file commands to direct Ppcload.dll to create directories on a Windows CE–based device, copy files into the directories, edit registry entries, execute applications on the Windows CE–based device, and add items to the unload script. The fully qualified path of the load file is given as a command-line argument to Load.

local address

An address found on a local network.

local area network (LAN)

A group of computers and other devices dispersed over a relatively limited area and connected by a communications link that enables any device to interact with any other device on the network. LANs commonly include microcomputers and shared resources such as laser printers and large hard disks. The devices on a LAN are known as nodes, and the nodes are connected by cables through which messages are transmitted.


A specific international market.

locale identifier (LCID)

A 32-bit value that consists of a language identifier and a sort identifier. In code, an LCID identifies the primary language and any secondary language of a specific locale. An LCID is constructed using the MAKELCIDmacro. See also language identifier, locale.


The process of adapting an application for a specific international market, which includes translating the user interface, resizing dialog boxes, customizing features if necessary, and testing results to ensure that the application still functions properly.

logical block address (LBA)

A method of expressing a data address on a storage medium, such as a compact disc.

logical font

An application-defined description of a font. See also font mapping.

logical palette

An array of colors, or a color palette, that an application creates and associates with a device context and uses for graphics output.

Logical Service Access Point (LSAP)

The point of access to a service or application within Infrared Link Management Protocol (IrLMP). This access point is referenced with an LSAP selector (LSAP-SEL).

Logical Service Access Point Selector (LSAP-SEL)

A 1-byte number that corresponds to a Logical Service Access Point (LSAP). This byte is broken into ranges for the Information Access Service (IAS) server, legal connections, connectionless service, and future use.


See Logical Service Access Point.


See Logical Service Access Point Selector.


The perceived brightness of a given color, as opposed to its hue or its saturation.


magnification factor

The ratio between the actual image size and the displayed size.

main priority

One of three thread priority groups. Main is the default priority. See also idle priorityand interrupt priority.

main window

The window that serves as the primary interface between a user and an application.

major axis

A line whose length is one of the parameters used to describe the shape of an ellipse. The major axis has endpoints on the ellipse and passes through the two foci of the ellipse. See also focus.

makefile file

1. A file that contains rules that describe how to compile source code or link object modules. 2. A file used by the Microsoft Program Maintenance Utility, Nmake.exe. 3. A source code configuration file.

.mak file

A file used by the Microsoft Program Maintenance Utility, Nmake.exe.

.map file

A text file that contains information about the program being linked, including the groups in the program and a list of public symbols. The linker names the mapfile with the base name of the program and the file name extension .map.


A Platform Builder configuration that builds a fully configured version of Windows CE that features communication applications.


See model device driver.


See multiple-document interface.

mean anomaly

An angular measurement that specifies the position of a satellite within the orbit of that satellite. The time that the satellite takes to complete one orbit maps to 2 pi radians of mean anomaly. Zero radians corresponds to the perigee and pi radians corresponds to the apogee. The mean anomaly of any other point in the orbit is proportional to the amount of time that the satellite takes to travel from the perigee to that point.


A list of options from which a user can make a selection in order to perform a selected action, such as choosing a command or applying a particular format to part of a document. Many applications, especially those that offer a graphical interface, use menus as a means of providing a user with an easily learned, easy-to-use alternative to memorizing commands and their appropriate usage.

menu editor

A resource editor that allows you to create and edit menus by working directly with a menu bar that closely resembles the one in your project.

menu handle

A unique value of type HMENUused to identify a menu.

menu item

A string or bitmap displayed in a menu. Choosing a menu item either sends a command message or activates a pop-up menu.

menu template

A menu template defines a menu, including the items on a menu bar and all submenus.


A structure or set of parameters used for communicating information or a request. Messages can be passed between the operating system and an application, different applications, threads within an application, and windows within an application.

message box

A secondary window that is displayed to inform a user about a particular condition.

message digest

See hash value.

message handler

A Component Object Model (COM) object that implements the ITranslateinterface in an in-process COM object.

message identifier

A unique value that identifies a message. System-defined messages use named constants, such as WM_PAINT, as message identifiers. Windows CE reserves message-identifier values in the range 0x0400 through 0x7FFF for application-defined messages.

message queue

An ordered list of messages awaiting transmission, from which they are taken up on a first-in, first-out (FIFO) basis.

message sink

A callback function that receives messages for a form or a control. Forms or controls that need to be notified of messages implement a message sink.

message store

The database in the object store for storing mail messages.


See Microsoft Foundation Classes.

Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for Windows CE

The Windows CE version of the C++ class library that Microsoft provides with its C++ compiler for creating Windows-based applications. MFC hides the fundamental Windows API in class hierarchies so that programmers can write a Windows-based application without needing to know the details of the native Windows API. MFC for Windows CE supports most of the standard version of MFC, and includes additional items specific to Windows CE.

Microsoft Windows CE Platform Builder

A tool for building custom Windows CE operating systems and components for embedded system devices.


A Platform Builder configuration that builds a version of Windows CE that features serial communications and networking.


A Platform Builder configuration that builds a version of Windows CE that features graphics device interface (GDI) support.


A Platform Builder configuration that builds a version of Windows CE that features user input and native driver support.


A Platform Builder configuration that builds a minimal version of Windows CE.


A Platform Builder configuration that builds a nearly complete version of Windows CE featuring Task Manager and the Command Processor shell.


A Platform Builder configuration that builds a version of Windows CE that features window management.

Mobile Channels

A Windows CE technology that represents a fourth type of Internet Explorer 4.0 (IE4) channel to allow the user to access the Web with great mobility.

modal dialog box

A modal dialog box requires the user to supply information or close the dialog box before allowing the application to continue.

model device driver (MDD)

The platform-neutral layer of a native device driver supplied by Microsoft. See also native device driver.

modeless dialog box

A dialog box that allows the user to supply information and return to a previous task without closing the dialog box.


A subset of the Windows CE operating system. Windows CE is structured as a collection of modules. Each module is a self-contained subset of the Windows CE operating system that can be used to construct a customized operating system for a particular device.

monolithic device driver

A sample device driver that comes with the Microsoft Windows CE Platform Builder.

Monte Carlo profiling

A software diagnostic procedure that involves interrupting the system at a high rate and recording the interrupted address.

month calendar control

A child window that displays a monthly calendar. The calendar can display one or more months at a time.

mounted file system

A file system located on a removable medium, such as a PC Card storage device. The operating system loads, or mounts, the file system when the medium is inserted into the device. It unloads, or unmounts, the file system either when the medium is removed or when the user issues a command to do so.


A data address format that displays a data address in minutes, seconds, and frames.


A communication between a single sender and multiple receivers on a network.

multicast group

Collectively, the hosts listening to a specific Internet Protocol (IP) multicast address.

multimedia driver

A device driver that uses the Windows CE subset of the Win32 WDM device driver model.

multiple-document interface (MDI)

A user interface in an application that allows a user to have more than one document open at the same time. MDI is not supported by Windows CE.

mutex object

An interprocess synchronization object whose state is set to signaled when it is not owned by any thread, and nonsignaled when it is owned. Only one thread at a time can own a mutex object.


named macro

A macro that enables you to name, save, and edit the actions you record. A named macro uses the Visual Basic, Scripting Edition (VBScript) programming language. See also quick macro.


Not a number.


Not AND. The Boolean function which is true unless both its arguments are true, the logical compliment of AND. A NAND B = NOT (A AND B) = (NOT A) OR (NOT B) NAND. NAND forms a complete set of Boolean functions on its own because it can be used to make NOT, AND, OR, and any other Boolean function.

national language support (NLS)

A function that enables you to specify system and user locale information.

native device driver

A software component that enables a computer system to communicate with a device. In Windows CE, a native device driver is linked with the GWES component. The driver consists of a model device driver (MDD) layer and a platform-dependent driver (PDD) layer. Together, these layers make it possible for applications to access physically different, but functionally equivalent, hardware resources in the same way on all Windows CE–based platforms. Also calleda built-in device driver.

natural language

A language spoken or written by humans, as opposed to a language used to program or communicate with computers.

navigation control

On a device, a moveable piece, such as a wheel or key, that sends virtual key codes. These virtual key codes are often used to move the cursor, alter the view of the current document, or launch a new application. A navigation control usually exists on a device that does not require a full hardware keyboard, such as a Palm-size PC.


See Network Driver Interface Specification.

NDIS driver

A device driver for NDIS network adapters.

Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS)

A programming interface that allows different protocols to share the same network hardware.

network identifier

An identifier for systems located on the same physical network.

network stack

An operating system component responsible for processing data that is transmitted or received over a network.


See national language support.


The Microsoft Program Maintenance Utility. A 32-bit tool that builds projects based on commands contained in a makefile (.mak) file.


1.In local area networks, a device that is connected to the network and is capable of communicating with other network devices. 2.In tree structures, a location on the tree that can have links to one or more nodes below it. Some authors make a distinction between node and element, with an element being a given data type and a node comprising one or more elements as well as any supporting data structures.

nonclient area

The parts of a window that are not a part of the client area. A window's nonclient area consists of the border, menu bar, title bar, and scroll bar.


See synchronization object.

non-strict localization

A type of localization that does not require all resource script files to be available when Platform Builder generates an operating system image. Use non-strict localization during the debug process to retest modules and components without having to have all resource script files localized. See localization, strict localization.


Not OR. The Boolean function which is true if none of its inputs are true and false otherwise, the logical complement of inclusive OR. The binary NOR function can be defined as: A NOR B = NOT (A OR B) = (NOT A) AND (NOT B).


The basic text editor included with Microsoft Windows.


A signal from the operating system that an event has occurred. This could be a timer event or a system event such as establishing a network connection. An application registers a notification for an event and the system generates a notification when the event occurs. Windows CE provides an application programming interface (API) that can be used to register events and select options that determine the type of notification.

notification function

A Windows CE function that allows an application to register its name and an event with the system. When the event occurs, the kernel automatically starts the named application.

notification message

A message that a control sends to its parent window when events, such as input from the user, occur.

NTFL translation layer

A separate implementation of the FTL for NAND-based linear flash memory, which includes M-Systems, Inc. Series 2000 and DiskOnChip.

null modem cable

A serial port cable that is specially wired to simulate the behavior of a pair of modems when used to connect the serial ports of two computers.



See OEM adaptation layer.

.obj file

A file containing object code or data generated by a compiler or an assembler from the source code of an application. Object files generated by the Visual C++ compiler have an .obj file name extension.


A file, directory, database, or database record that resides in an object store.

object ID

See object identifier.

object identifier

1.A unique value that identifies each object in the object store. 2.In reference to the Contacts database, an object identifier is a unique value that the system assigns to each address card when it is added. An application uses the object identifier when querying an address card's properties or when modifying or deleting an address card.

Object Linking and Embedding

See OLE.

object store

The persistent storage that Windows CE makes available to applications. For example, Windows CE reserves part of its available random access memory (RAM) for the operating system and uses the rest for the object store. This data can be stored in files, registry entries, or in Windows CE databases.

object type

A name for a particular group of objects that are contained in a folder. For example, appointment is an object type naming all appointments in a Microsoft Schedule+ folder.


The Hitachi D9000 hardware development platform. See also hardware development platform.


See original equipment manufacturer.

OEM adaptation layer (OAL)

That portion of Windows CE that must be provided by the hardware manufacture to adapt Windows CE to their platform.


Object Linking and Embedding. A technology for transferring and sharing information among applications. When an object, such as an image file created with a painting application, is linked to a compound document, such as a spreadsheet or a document created with a word processing application, the document contains only a reference to the object; any changes made to the contents of a linked object are seen in the compound document. When an object is embedded in a compound document, the document contains a copy of the object; any changes made to the contents of the original object are not seen in the compound document unless the embedded object is updated. See also Automation.

operating system image

The executable file that contains the operating system. The primary tool used to make an operating system image is the Make Binary Image tool, Makeimg.exe. See also image file.

option button

In graphical user interfaces, a means of selecting one of several options, usually within a dialog box. An option button, also known as a radio button, appears as a small circle that, when selected, has a smaller, filled circle inside it. Option buttons act like the station selector buttons on a car radio. Selecting one button in a set deselects the previously selected button, so one and only one of the options in the set can be selected at any given time. In contrast, check boxes are used when more than one option in the set can be selected at the same time.

original equipment manufacturer (OEM)

For Windows CE, an OEM is a company that manufacturers a hardware platform and ports Windows CE to that platform.

Output window

A window that displays status messages, notifications, and search results.

overlapped communication operation

The performance of two distinct communication operations simultaneously; for example, a simultaneous read/write operation. Windows CE does not support overlapped communication operation, but does support multiple read/writes pending on a device.

overlapped window

A window with the WS_OVERLAPPED style. Overlapped windows are top-level windows designed to serve as an application's main window.



A unit of information transmitted as a whole from one device to another on a network.

paint cycle

The process of a control painting or erasing itself in response to messages received from the operating system.


A collection of colors that can be displayed on an output device.


One of the separate areas in a split window or a rectangular area of the status bar that can be used to display information.

parallel port

The input/output connector for a parallel interface device.


A tab in the Platform Workspace window that displays the files used in a platform. The files are arranged in expandable folders according to type.

parent window

A window that has one or more child windows.


An application that breaks data into smaller chunks so that an application can act upon the information. For example, Mobile Channels use a Channel Definition Format parser to parse a channel.


See pocket Active Server Pages.


1.In communications, a link between two nodes in a network. 2.A route through a structured collection of information, as in a database, an application, or files stored on disk. 3.In programming, the sequence of instructions that a computer carries out in executing a routine. 4.In file storage, the route followed by the operating system in finding, sorting, and retrieving files on a disk. 5.In graphics, an accumulation of line segments or curves to be filled or overwritten with text.

.pbp file

A Platform Builder project file that specifies how to build a particular project in a workspace. The file contains source file names and locations, build settings, and debug settings, including breakpoints and watches.

.pbw file

A Platform Builder workspace file that contains information about the workspace, such as a list of all the platforms or projects.

PC Card storage device

A trademark of the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) that is used to describe add-in cards that conform to the PCMCIA specification. A PC Card storage device is a removable device approximately the same size as a credit card that is designed to plug into a PCMCIA slot. Type I cards are primarily used as memory-related peripherals. Type II cards accommodate devices such as modem, fax, and network cards. Type III cards accommodate devices that require more space, such as wireless communications devices and rotating storage media, including hard disks. Flash cardis a general term for a PC Card storage device.

.pch file

A precompiled header file. A file containing compiled code for a portion of a project. Subsequent builds combine this file with the uncompiled code, thus shortening the overall compile time.


See program comprehension tool.

.pdb file

A file used by the Platform Builder build tools to store information about a user's application. A .pdb file speeds linking during the debugging phase of development by keeping the debugging information separate from the object files.


See platform-dependent driver.

.pdp file

See project.

PE file format

See portable executable (PE) file format.


Any of the devices on a layered communications network that operate on the same protocol level.


A drawing tool used to draw lines and curves.


The point within the orbit of a satellite where the satellite is closest to the earth.

persistent object

A COM object that adheres to standards through which clients can request objects to be initialized, loaded, and saved to and from a data store, such as a flat file, structured storage, or memory.

personal information manager (PIM)

An application that usually includes an address book and organizes unrelated information, such as notes, appointments, and names, in a useful way.

phone book

Entries in the Remote Access Service (RAS) phone book contain the information necessary to establish a RAS connection. Unlike Windows NT, which keeps the phone book entries in a file, Windows CE stores these entries in the registry.

physical font

The font that is stored on a device or in an operating system. See also font mapping.


See personal information manager.


A protocol for testing whether a particular computer is connected to the Internet by sending a packet to its Internet Protocol (IP) address and waiting for a response.


Data that has not been encrypted.


1.A specific implementation of a Windows CE operating system on a target device. A platform consists of an operating system image, an OEM adaptation layer, and device drivers. 2.In everyday usage, the type of computer or operating system being used.

Platform Builder

See Microsoft Windows CE Platform Builder.

platform-dependent driver (PDD)

The platform-specific layer of a native device driver supplied by an original equipment manufacturer. See also native device driver.

platform directory

The directory containing the code that implements a hardware development platform.

Platform Manager

A communications technology that connects a Windows CE SDK running on a workstation with a target device.

Platform view

A Platform Builder integrated development environment (IDE) setting that displays the menu items, toolbars, and windows for building platforms. See also project view.

Platform Wizard

A series of interactive dialog boxes that enable you to select operating system features and a board support package for your platform. After you have finalized your choices, Platform Wizard automatically creates the necessary files and directories to support your platform.

pocket Active Server Pages (pASP)

A scaled-down version of the Active Server Pages optimized for server-side Mobile Channels scripting.

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)

An advanced serial packet protocol commonly used for dial-up connections.


See Post Office Protocol 3.

pop-up menu

A menu that appears on the screen when a user selects a certain item. Pop-up menus can appear anywhere on the screen, and they generally disappear when the user selects an item in the menu.

pop-up window

1.A special type of overlapped window typically used for dialog boxes, message boxes, and other temporary windows that appear outside an application's main window. 2.In Platform Builder, an immovable, nonsizable window that remains on the screen until the user closes it. Pop-up windows typically contain definitions of terms or other parenthetical information.

portable executable (PE) file format

The Microsoft implementation of the Common Object File Format. See Common Object File Format.

Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments (POSIX)

An IEEE standard that defines the open systems environment standards for system interfaces, shells, tools, testing, verification, real-time processing, security, system administration, networking, and transaction processing. The standard is based on UNIX system services, but it allows implementation on other operating systems.

position index

An identifier associated with each address card in the Contacts database. The position index indicates the address card's position relative to the other address cards in the database. A position index is distinct from an object identifier.


See Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments.

Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3)

A standard protocol for transferring mail messages on demand from a mail server.


See Point-to-Point Protocol.

predefined control

A control belonging to a window class supplied by Windows CE.


Increases the magnitude of the higher signal frequencies on an audio channel, improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Compare de-emphasis.

pre-emptive multitasking

A form of multitasking in which the operating system periodically interrupts the execution of an application and passes control of the system to another waiting application. Preemptive multitasking prevents any one application from monopolizing the system.

prerecorded speech template

A recording of a speech command in your application that is used for short voice Help.


An entity recognized by a security system. A principal can be a human user or an autonomous process.

priority class

A range of thread priority levels. Whereas Win32 utilizes four priority classes with seven base priority levels per class, Windows CE has only eight base priority levels. Hence, for processes running under Windows CE, preemption is based solely on the thread's priority.

priority inheritance

A process by which a thread that is blocking a shared resource needed by a higher-priority thread inherits the priority of that higher-priority thread in order to free the resource for use by the higher-priority thread, thus preventing priority inversion.

priority inversion

Priority inversion is a situation in which higher-priority thread A spawns lower-priority thread B to access a shared resource that is already in use by lower-priority thread C with greater priority than thread B, blocking higher-priority thread A. This situation can be averted by a process of priority inheritance.


A running application that consists of a private virtual address space, code, data, and other operating-system resources, such as files, pipes, and synchronization objects that are visible to the process. A process also contains one or more threads that run in the context of the process.

process logging

A debugging technique that monitors the processes and threads on a target device.


A diagnostic tool for analyzing the run-time behavior of programs.

program button

On a device, a navigation control that is pressed to launch an application. The program button can also be programmed for additional features, such as creating a new document in an application.

program comprehension tool (PCT)

A software engineering tool that facilitates the process of understanding the structure and/or functionality of computer applications.

program information file (.pif)

A file that provides information to Windows CE about how best to run MS-DOS applications. When you start an MS-DOS application, Windows CE looks for a .pif file to use with the application. A .pif file contains such items as the name of the file, a startup directory, and multitasking options.

program memory

Program memory is used for stack and heap storage for both system and non-system applications. Non-system applications are taken from storage memory, uncompressed, and loaded into program memory for execution.

progress bar

A common control that indicates the progress of a lengthy operation by displaying a colored bar inside a horizontal rectangle. The length of the bar in relation to the length of the rectangle corresponds to the percentage of the operation that is complete.


A file that keeps track of all programs, forms, menus, libraries, reports, labels, queries, and other types of files that are needed to create an application. Platform Builder projects have a .pdp file extension.

project configuration

The settings that are used by Platform Builder to build a project. They determine the characteristics of the final output file for a project.

Project view

A Platform Builder integrated development environment (IDE) setting that displays the menu items, toolbars, and windows for building projects. See also platform view.


With respect to the database application programming interface, a property refers to a data item that consists of a property identifier, data type, and value. Windows CE supports several data types such as integer, string, time, and binary large object (BLOB).

property page

A dialog box that controls the appearance and the behavior of an object, such as a file or resource. A property page's appearance differs according to its purpose.

property sheet

A type of dialog box that lists the attributes or settings of an object, such as a file, application, or hardware device. A property sheet presents the user with a tabbed, index card–like selection of property pages, each of which features standard dialog box–style controls for customizing parameters.

protected server library (PSL)

A process running on the system that has registered an API set that can be called from other processes through a kernel trap.

protocol stack

Collectively, the layers of communications software in the ISO/OSI model.


A label used in place of a file name in the dependency line of a makefile file.


See protected server library.

public-key encryption

An asymmetric scheme that uses a pair of keys for encryption: The public key encrypts data, and a corresponding secret key decrypts it. For digital signatures, the process is reversed: The sender uses the secret key to create a unique electronic number that can be read by anyone possessing the corresponding public key, which verifies that the message is truly from the sender.

pull-down menu

A menu containing commands that are accessed from a command or menu bar. A pull-down menu usually provides access to a small number of items with content that rarely changes.

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

An uncompressed audio format in which each sample represents the amplitude of the signal at the time of sampling.

push button

A small rectangular control that a user can turn on or off. A push button, also known as a command button, has a raised appearance in its default off state and a depressed appearance when it is turned on.

Push Pinbutton

A button on a property page that has the appearance of a push pin. Pressing or releasing the button determines whether a property page remains visible and on top, or disappears when the focus changes.


queued message

A message in a message queue.

quick macro

A macro that enables you to quickly record your actions without having to name or describe them, or review the resulting macro file. A quick macro uses the Visual Basic, Scripting Edition (VBScript) programming language. See also named macro.

QWERTY keyboard

A keyboard layout named for the six leftmost characters in the top row of alphabetic characters on most keyboards—the standard layout of most typewriters and computer keyboards.


radio button

See option button.


See random access memory.

random access memory (RAM)

Semiconductor-based memory that can be read and written by the CPU or other hardware devices.


See remote application programming interface.


An application that enables a host computer application to execute an application programming interface on a Windows CE device. You can use Rapisrv.exe with Repllog.exe if your Windows CE configuration does not include Remnet.exe. See also Repllog.exe.


See remote access serverand Remote Access Service.

raster font

A font in which each glyph—a character or symbol—is of a particular size and style, designed for a specific resolution of device and described as a unique bitmap. There are seven system raster fonts available in several sizes stored in the Windows CE read-only memory (ROM). The built-in fonts are built into the Windows CE operating system. Also calledbitmap fonts and non-scalable fonts.

raw infrared (raw IR)

A method of receiving data through an infrared transceiver. Raw IR treats the IR transceiver like a serial cable and does not process data in any way. The application is responsible for handling collision detection and other potential problems.

raw IR

See raw infrared.

.rc file

A resource script file. An .rc file is a text file that contains descriptions of resources from which the resource compiler creates a binary resource file.

.rct file

A resource template file that is used as a model for creating other resource files.

read-only memory (ROM)

Any semiconductor circuit serving as a memory that contains instructions or data that can be read but not modified, regardless of whether it was placed there by a manufacturer or by a programming process.

real-time clock

An embedded chip that provides the time of day to the system.

rebar control

A rebar control acts as a container for child windows. A rebar control contains one or more bands. Each band can contain one child window, which can be a toolbar or any other control.


A data structure that is a collection of elements, each with its own name and type. The elements of a record represent different types of information and are accessed by name. A record can be accessed as a collective unit of elements, or the elements can be accessed individually. A collection of records is a database. A Windows CE database consists of an arbitrary number of records, where each record consists of one or more properties .Each of the records in a specific database typically contain a similar set of properties. A Windows CE database should not be confused with a full-fledged relational database. It is simply a general-purpose, flexible, structured collection of data.


A function that draws a rectangular image.

Red Book audio

A data format standard for an audio compact disc.


A module through which one computer accesses another.

reentrant code

Code written so that it can be shared by several applications or threads within a single process simultaneously. When code is reentrant, one thread can safely interrupt the execution of another thread, execute its own code, and then return control to the first thread in such a way that the first thread does not fail or behave in an unexpected way.

.reg file

A registry file. Build.exe uses .reg files to create a registry on a target device.


A rectangle, polygon, ellipse, or a combination of two or more of these shapes used by Windows-based applications to define a part of the client area to be painted, inverted, filled with output, framed, or used for hit testing.

registered notification

The state of a user notification from the time CeSetUserNotificationis called until the time the user is notified.


A central hierarchical database used to store information necessary to configure the system for applications and hardware devices. The registry contains information—such as the applications installed on the computer and the types of documents each can create, property sheet settings for folders and application icons, what hardware exists on the system, and which ports are being used—that the operating system continually references during operation.

regular expression

A search string that uses special characters to match a text pattern in a file. See also tagged regular expression.

release configuration

A Platform Builder project that is optimized for maximum speed and is built without full symbolic debugging information. You cannot do debugging on a release configuration.

remote access server (RAS)

A Windows NT feature by which a single serial connection provides a remote workstation with host connectivity, NT file services, or Novell file and printing services (NWLink). Windows CE supports the standard Win32 RAS functions; however, it allows only one connection at a time. RAS functions can be implemented for direct serial connections or dial-up modem connections. See also Remote Access Service.

Remote Access Service (RAS)

Windows software that allows a user to gain remote access to the network server by means of a modem. See also remote access server.

remote address

An address not found on a local network.

remote application programming interface (RAPI)

Enables an application running on a desktop computer to make function calls on a Windows CE–based device. The desktop computer is known as the RAPI client and the Windows CE device is known as the RAPI server. RAPI runs over Winsock and TCP/IP.


An application that synchronizes data and monitors the connection between a target device and a host computer. You can use Repllog.exe with Rapisrv.exe if your Windows CE configuration does not include Remnet.exe. See also Rapisrv.exe.

Request for Comments (RFC)

A document in which a standard, a protocol, or other information pertaining to the operation of the Internet is published.

.res file

A binary file that contains resource data for a Windows-based application. A .res file is created by the resource compiler from the resource script (.rc) file. See also .rc file.

res: Protocol

A resource that is obtained from a module. By prefixing a file name with res://, you can refer to an HTML page embedded in the resources of a dynamic-link library (.dll) file.

resistive touch panel

A transparent, touch-sensitive surface implemented to detect user input. See touch screen.


An object that is used within an application, but that is defined outside an application. A resource is added to an executable file when the application is linked. The Windows CE resources include: menus, keyboard accelerators, dialog boxes, carets, cursors, icons, bitmaps, string-table entries, message-table entries, timers, and user-defined data.

resource editor

A specialized environment for creating or changing resources. Resource editors share techniques and interfaces to create and modify application resources. You can use resource editors to create new resources, modify existing resources, copy existing resources, and delete old resources. Examples of resource editors are: the menu editor, graphics editor, and binary editor.

resource template

A copy of an edited resource used to create additional resources.


A tab in a Project Workspace window that displays the resource files included in Platform Builder projects. Expanding the folders shows the resource types.


See Request for Comments.

Rich Ink

The underlying technology that enables a user to write and draw on a touch-sensitive screen by using a stylus.

right ascension

The angle as measured from the center of the earth between a satellite and the vernal equinox. The right ascension must have a value between 0 and 2 pi radians. See also vernal equinox.


See run-length encoding .

rocker switch

A hardware navigation control designed to perform spatial navigation, much like the UP ARROW key and the DOWN ARROW key.


See read-only memory.

ROM image

Files and binaries as they appear in physical memory as defined by the binary image builder (.bib) file.


An intermediary device on a communications network that expedites message delivery. On a single network linking many computers through a mesh of possible connections, a router receives transmitted messages and forwards them to their correct destinations over the most efficient available route. On an interconnected set of local area networks using the same communications protocols, a router serves the somewhat different function of acting as a link between these local area networks, enabling messages to be sent from one network to another.


A cryptographic service provider (CSP). The Microsoft RSA Base Provider included with Windows CE.

RSA encryption

A patented public key encryption and decryption algorithm.


An enhanced cryptographic service provider (CSP) that uses 128-bit encryption.

run-length encoding (RLE)

A simple compression method that replaces a contiguous series (run) of identical values in a data stream with a pair of values that represent the length of the series and the value itself. For example, a data stream that contains 57 consecutive entries with the value 10 could replace them all with the much shorter pair of values 57, 10.


salt value

Random data used to supplement encryption schemes. A salt value allows two identical packets of data to be encrypted into two different packets of ciphertext using the same key by changing the salt value with each packet.

satellite azimuth

An angular measure of the horizontal direction of a satellite relative to an observer on Earth. The value of the satellite azimuth must be between 0 and 2 pi radians.

satellite elevation

The angular position of a satellite above the plane that is tangent to the earth at the position of the observer. The value of the satellite elevation must be between 0 and one-half pi radians.

scan code

A code number transmitted to a computer whenever a key is pressed or released. Each key on the keyboard has a unique scan code. This code is not the same as the ASCII code for the letter, number, or symbol shown on the key; it is a special identifier for the key itself and is always the same for a particular key. When a key is pressed, the scan code is transmitted to the computer, where a portion of the read-only memory basic input/output system (ROM BIOS) dedicated to the keyboard translates the scan code into its ASCII equivalent. Because a single key can generate more than one character—lowercase "a" and uppercase "A," for example—the ROM BIOS also keeps track of the status of keys that change the keyboard state, such as the SHIFT key, and takes them into account when translating a scan code.


A security support provider (SSP). A security package that provides authentication between a client and a server.


A security support provider (SSP).


When referring to a spelling checker, a score is a number that indicates how much a replacement word differs from the original misspelled word. A low score indicates that the misspelled word was changed slightly, while a high score indicates that the word was changed a great deal.

screen image

When using remote tools, the bitmapped screen capture of a target device.


An application consisting of a set of instructions to an application or utility application. The instructions usually use the rules and syntax of the application or utility.

scripting language

A simple programming language designed to perform special or limited tasks, sometimes associated with a particular application or function. An example of a scripting language is Visual Basic Script.

scroll bar

In some graphical user interfaces, a vertical or horizontal bar at the side or bottom of a display area that can be used with a mouse for moving around in that area. Scroll bars often have four active areas: two scroll arrows for moving line by line, a sliding scroll box for moving to an arbitrary location in the display area, and the gray areas in the scroll bar for moving in one-window increments.

scrolling menu

A menu with top arrows used to scroll menu items up and down.


See software development kit.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

A proposed open standard developed by Netscape Communications for establishing a secure communication channel to prevent the interception of critical information, such as credit card numbers. The primary purpose of the SSL is to enable secure electronic financial transactions on the Web, although it is designed to work with other Internet services as well.

security context

The security data relevant to a connection. A security context contains information such as a session key and the duration of a session. Both the client and server in a communication link must cooperate to create a security context.

security package

A security solution that maps Security Support Provider Interface (SSPI) functions to the security protocols specified in a package.

Security Support Provider (SSP)

A dynamic-link library (DLL) containing common authentication and cryptographic data schemes. See Security Support Provider Interface.

Security Support Provider Interface (SSPI)

Enables applications to access dynamic-link libraries (DLLs) containing common authentication and cryptographic data schemes. See Security Support Provider.

selection margin

An area to the left of each line of text that is used to show breakpoints, temporary bookmarks, the current and caller line, and the error line.


A blank space used to divide toolbar elements into groups or to reserve space in a command bar.

serial cable

A cable that connects to a serial port. It is used to transfer information between two devices. See also serial port.

Serial Infrared (SIR)

Part of the basic Infrared Data Association (IrDA) communication protocol, a Serial Infrared physical layer provides for serial infrared links.

serial I/O

A communications channel that transmits data one bit at a time.


The process of converting an object to a series of bytes for transmission to another device. Compare deserialize.

Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)

A data link protocol that allows transmission of Internet Protocol (IP) data packets over dial-up telephone connections, thus enabling a computer or a local area network to be connected to the Internet or some other network.

serial port

An input/output location (channel) that sends and receives data to and from a computer's central processing unit or a communications device one bit at a time. Serial ports are used for serial data communication and as interfaces to peripheral devices, such as mouse devices and printers.


1.On a local area network (LAN), a computer running administrative software that controls access to the network and its resources, such as printers and disk drives, and provides resources to computers functioning as workstations on the network. 2.An application that responds to requests from another application or task. See also client.

Server Gated Cryptography (SGC)

An extension of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) that allows financial institutions with export versions of Microsoft Windows 2000 Server to use 128-bit encryption. Although SGC capabilities are built into Windows 2000 Server, a special SGC certificate is required to use SGC.

Server Message Block (SMB)

The networking protocol used in MS-DOS, Windows, and OS/2 networks that allows files and printers to be shared across the network.

service identifier

An identifier used by a service to uniquely identify messages. This value should be changed only by the service library.

service manager

A synchronization engine that resides on both the desktop computer and the device. The service manager performs many common synchronization tasks, which include providing connectivity, detecting changes in data, and resolving data conflicts, as well as mapping and transferring data objects.

service provider

When referring to ActiveSync technology, a service provider is a pair of DLLs that a developer must implement in an application in order to perform synchronization tasks. One module, called the desktop provider module, resides on the desktop computer and the other module, called the device provider module, resides on the device. See also desktop provider moduleand device provider module.

session identifier

An identifier generated by a mail transport service. Each time a Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) connection is made to the server, the server looks at all of the currently stored messages and assigns a session identifier to each message, numbered 1 through the total number of messages. This makes it easier to reference a particular message without having to use its long unique identifier. The session identifier can be trusted only during a single connection to the mail server.

session key

A key used in symmetric encryption schemes where a single key is used to both encrypt and decrypt data.


See Server Gated Cryptography.


See Standard Generalized Markup Language.

shared directory

On a local area network, a directory on a disk that is located on a computer other than the one a user is operating. A shared directory differs from a network drive in that a user has access to only that directory.

shared library

Any code module that can be accessed and used by many applications. Shared libraries are used primarily for sharing common code between different executable files or for breaking an application into separate components, thus allowing easy upgrades. In Windows CE, shared libraries are usually referred to as dynamic-link libraries (DLLs).


An application that enables the user to connect with the kernel and, thus the system, usually providing some basic services in addition to facilitating the loading and executing of applications.

shortcut key

A key that corresponds to a command name on a menu, such as CTRL+P. Also known asan accelerator key or a keyboard shortcut.

sibling window

A child window that has the same parent window as one or more other child windows.


See synchronization object.

signature file

A file that ensures that a cryptographic service provider (CSP) will be recognized by the operating system.

silkscreen button

A section of a resistive touch panel with a painted icon. An OEM provides a driver that lets this section of the panel send virtual-key messages. A silkscreen button is considered a navigation control.

silkscreen region

A section of a resistive touch panel that contains several silkscreen buttons.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

A TCP/IP protocol for sending messages from one computer to another on a network. This protocol is used on the Internet to route e-mail. See also TCP/IP.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

The network management protocol for TCP/IP.

single threading model

A model in which all objects are executed on a single thread. Contrast multithreaded application; see also free threading model, apartment threading model.

.sip file

An input panel file.


See Serial Infrared.


See Serial Line Internet Protocol.

Smart Indent

An Auto Indent option that automatically indents text based on the context of the previous lines. See also Auto Indent.


See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.


See Simple Network Management Protocol.


An object that represents an endpoint for communication between processes across a network transport. Sockets have a datagram or stream type and can be bound to a specific network address. Windows Sockets provides an application programming interface (API) for handling all types of socket connections in Windows.

software development kit

A set of library, header, and Help files that you use to write applications for a specific platform.

sort order

The order in which a set of records or other data objects are to be sorted, or the function that defines this order. Possible sort orders for an array of strings could include alphabetical order or ascending order by length, for example.

sound scheme

A collection of audio effects, such as clicks and beeps, associated with system and application key events.

source code configuration file

A file that Build.exe uses to generate source code. A source code configuration file can be a dirs file, a sources file, or a makefile file.

source code control system

An application that tracks changes to source-code files during software development. A source code control system ensures that changes are not overwritten in projects with multiple developers, and that you are working with the most up-to-date code. You can also return to earlier versions of code, if necessary. If you install a source code control system that conforms to the Microsoft Source Code Control Interface, you can directly access source code control functionality from the Platform Builder menus.

sources file

A text file that sets the macro definitions for the source code in a subdirectory. The Build tool, Build.exe, uses these macro definitions to determine how to compile and link the source code.

source window

A window that is associated with a source file.

speaker-dependent template

A recording of a speech command created by the user of a speech recognition system to train the system to recognize the command. Using a speaker-dependent template, a speech recognition system recognizes only the user who trained the word. See also speaker-independent template.

speaker-independent template

A synthesis of many speakers' recorded pronunciation of a word or phrase. Using a speaker-independent template, a speech recognition system recognizes most speakers. See also speaker-dependent template.

speech recognition

The ability of a computer to understand the spoken word for the purpose of receiving commands and data input from the speaker.

spelling session

The resources that a spelling checker uses for a particular application, including dictionaries and created structures.

spin button control

A control containing a pair of arrow buttons that a user can tap with the stylus to increment or decrement a value. A spin button control is most often used with a companion control, called a buddy window, in which a current value is displayed. See also up-down control.

splash screen

An initial screen displayed by interactive software, usually containing a logo, version information, author credits, or a copyright notice.

split bar

The horizontal or vertical double line that separates a window into two panes.

.sre file

A Motorola 32-bit binary data format file. An .sre file is an image file that is generated by Romimage.exe that makes up the bits of the operating system image. See image file.


See secure socket layer.


See Security Support Provider.


A region of reserved memory in which applications store status data such as procedure and function call addresses, passed parameters, and sometimes local variables.

Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)

An information-management standard adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1986 as a means of providing platform-independent and application-independent documents that retain formatting, indexing, and linked information. SGML provides a grammar-like mechanism for users to define the structure of their documents and the tags they will use to denote the structure in individual documents.

starter file

A set of files created by an application wizard that, when compiled, implement the basic features of a Windows CE application. The starter files consist of C++ source files, resource files, header files, and a project file.

static control

A control used to display text, to draw frames or lines separating other controls, or to display icons. A static control does not accept user input.

static library

A file containing objects and their associated functions and data that is linked into your application when the executable file is built.

status bar

A space at the bottom of many application windows that contains a short text message about the current condition of the application. Some applications also display an explanation of the currently selected menu command in the status bar.

storage memory

Storage memory is similar to a RAM disk on a desktop computer. It is used to store data and nonsystem applications.

stream cipher mode

A method of encryption where data is encrypted one bit at a time. Compare block cipher mode.

stream interface device driver

A user-level DLL that controls devices connected to a Windows CE–based platform. A stream interface device driver presents the services of a hardware device to applications by exposing Win32 stream interface functions. Stream interface drivers also can control devices built into a Windows CE–based platform, depending on the software architecture for the drivers. Also calledinstallable device driver.

stream mode

An asynchronous method of calling CeRapiInvokeby using an IStreamtype interface to exchange arbitrary-size data in any order and direction.

.str file

A string replacement file. An .str file consists of localized string resources identified by a defined name or token.

strict localization

A type of localization that requires all resource script files to be available when Platform Builder generates an operating system image. Strict localization causes an error if the localization process fails to localize a module. See also localization, non-strict localization.

string editor

A resource editor that allows you to edit the string table for your project.

strong encryption

An encryption method that uses a very large number as its cryptographic key. The larger the key, the longer it takes to unlawfully break the code. Currently, 128 bits is considered strong encryption.


A pointing device used on a touch-sensitive surface.


A directory, or logical grouping of related files, within another directory.


A menu that appears as the result of the selection of an item on a higher-level menu.

subnet mask

See address mask.


An identifiable and separate part of an organization's network identified through Internet Protocol (IP) addressing.


A project that has a dependency relationship with another project. The dependency of a subproject is established by the configuration settings. See also top-level project.


A name that represents a register, an absolute value, or a memory address (relative or absolute).

symbolic debugging information

A map of the source code and all the identifiers, such as variables and functions names, created at compile time for use by the debugger.

symmetric encryption

A type of encryption where the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt data.


The process of updating information between the desktop computer and a Windows CE–based device to ensure that data is the same on both computers.

synchronization object

An object whose handle can be specified in one of the wait functions to coordinate the execution of multiple threads. A synchronization object will be a member of one of the synchronization classes. Synchronization classes are used when access to a resource must be controlled to ensure integrity of the resource. The state of a synchronization object is either signaled, which can allow the wait function to return, or nonsignaled, which can prevent the function from returning. More than one process can have a handle of the same synchronization object, making interprocess synchronization possible. There are four types of synchronization objects: mutex, semaphore, event, and critical section. Of these, Windows CE supports mutex, event, and critical section.

synchronous operation

1.Two or more processes that depend upon the occurrences of specific events such as common timing signals. 2.Data transmission method in which there is constant time between successive bits, characters, or events. The timing is achieved by the sharing of a single clock. Each end of the transmission synchronizes itself with the use of clocks and information sent along with the transmitted data. Characters are spaced by time, and not by start and stop bits. 3.A function call that blocks execution of a process until it returns. Compare asynchronous operation.

syntax coloring

The application of color to various code elements, such as keywords or comments. Syntax coloring gives you visual cues about the structure and state of your code. Once you set syntax coloring for a programming language, all files of that language are colored the same way.

sysgen phase

Refers to the process of defining and building the selected modules and components, as governed by the Makefile located in the directory %_PUBLICROOT%\Common\Cesysgen.

system-defined message

A message that the system uses to control the operations of an application and to provide input and other information for an application to process. An application can also send or post a system-defined message. An application generally uses this message to control the operation of control windows created by using preregistered window classes.

system event

A notification event that is triggered when a device encounters a change, such as AC power connection or disconnection.

system registry functions

The functions used to manipulate keys and values in the registry. A Windows CE–based application uses the standard Win32 registry functions.


tab control

A control that is analogous to a set of dividers in a notebook or labels in a file cabinet. A tab control is used in a property sheet to provide a way for a user to move from one property page to another.

tagged regular expression

A a search string used to replace specific expressions. Each occurrence of a tagged regular expression is numbered according to its order in the Find Whattext box, and its replacement expression is \n, where 1 corresponds to the first tagged expression, 2 to the second tagged expression, and so on. You can have up to nine tagged expressions. See also regular expression.


See Telephony Application Programming Interface.

target device

In Platform Builder, hardware that runs a Platform Builder custom platform. A target device is the hardware for which you are creating a platform and the hardware that is accessed by remote tools.

target platform

The system for which Windows CE is being adapted.

target-side component

An OEM's desktop computer that includes the target-side transport layer files, as well as hooks for the Windows CE tools to access. Platform Builder uses target-side components to communicate through the appropriate hardware connection from a desktop computer to a device. Platform Builder builds the target-side component into the operating system during the build phase. See host-side component.

Task Manager

An element of the Platform Builder Sample shell and the Minshell configuration. The Task Manager displays a window that lists all of the running top-level windows and enables you to switch to or stop an application. The shortcut keys ALT+TAB, CTRL+ESC, and CTRL+ALT+BACKSPACE invoke the window.


See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.


Telephone technology; the conversion of sound into electrical signals, its transmission to another location, and its reconversion to sound, with or without the use of connecting wires.

Telephony Application Programming Interface (TAPI)

A set of functions in the Win32 API that lets a computer communicate directly with telephone systems. Windows CE supports TAPI version 2.0. It provides the basic functions, structures, and messages for establishing outgoing calls and controlling modems from a Windows CE–based device.

Telephony Service Provider (TSP)

A modem driver that enables access to vendor-specific equipment through a standard device driver interface. See also Telephony Service Provider Interface (TSPI).

Telephony Service Provider Interface (TSPI)

The external interface of a service provider to be implemented by vendors of telephony equipment. A telephony service provider accesses vendor-specific equipment through a standard device driver interface. Installing a service provider allows Windows CE–based applications that use elements of telephony to access the corresponding telephony equipment. See also Telephony Service Provider (TSPI).


A Win32 macro that exists so that code can be compiled either as American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) text or as Unicode. For Windows CE, which supports only Unicode, the macro forces the compiler to convert ASCII characters to Unicode characters. For example, passing the ASCII string "Hello Windows CE!'' through the TEXTmacro converts all characters in the string to 16-bit wide characters.

text normalization

Changing how words are pronounced based on their context.

text-to-speech (TTS)

The conversion of text-based data into voice output by speech synthesis devices. Text-to-speech allows users to gain access to information audibly.


See See Trivial File Transfer Protocol.


A process that is part of a larger process or application. A thread can execute any part of an application's code, including code that is currently being executed by another thread. All threads share the virtual address space, global variables, and operating-system resources of their respective processes.

thread identifier

The unique identifier associated with a specific thread. Note that thread identification numbers are reused; they identify a thread only for the lifetime of that thread.

thread local storage (TLS)

A Win32 mechanism that allows multiple threads of a process to store data that is unique for each thread. For example, a spreadsheet application can create a new instance of the same thread each time the user opens a new spreadsheet. A dynamic-link library that provides the functions for various spreadsheet operations can use thread local storage to save information about the current state of each spreadsheet.

thread synchronization

The method used to coordinate the execution of two or more threads. There are two states in synchronization, signaled and nonsignaled. Threads can either modify the state of the synchronization object or wait for the object to reach a signaled state.


A small section of code that performs a translation or conversion during a call or indirection. For example, a thunk is used to change the size or type of function parameters when calling between 16-bit and 32-bit code.

time-out value

A specified time interval used by a timer. Each time the time-out value elapses, Windows CE sends a WM_TIMER message to the window associated with the timer.


An internal routine that causes the system to send a WM_TIMER message whenever a specified interval elapses.

timer event

A notification event that indicates a specified time has arrived, such as an appointment or meeting.


The process of attaching the date and time to a message.

Time to Live

A header field for a packet sent over the Internet indicating how long the packet should be held.


See translation look-aside buffer.


See thread local storage.


A row, column, or block of on-screen buttons or icons. When these buttons or icons are depressed, macros or certain functions of the application are activated.

toolbar editor

A resource editor that allows you to create toolbar resources and convert bitmaps into toolbar resources.


A small rectangular pop-up window that displays a brief description of a command bar button's purpose.

top-level project

A project that is not a dependent of any other project. A workspace has at least one top-level project. See also subproject.

top-level window

A window that has no parent window.

topmost window

A window with the WS_EX_TOPMOST style. A topmost window overlaps all other non-topmost windows.


An input device that functions like a mouse to control cursor movements.

touch panel

See touch screen.

touch screen

A computer screen on which the user selects options, such as from a menu, by touching the screen. The touch screen is composed of an LCD and a resistive touch panel.


A common control, also known as a slider control, that consists of a bar with tick marks on it and a slider, also known as a thumb. When a user drags the slider or clicks on either side of it, the slider moves in the appropriate direction, tick by tick.


The load carried by a communications link or channel.

translation look-aside buffer (TLB)

A table used in a virtual memory system that lists the physical address page number associated with each virtual address page number. A TLB is used in conjunction with a cache whose tags are based on virtual addresses. The virtual address is presented simultaneously to the TLB and to the cache so that cache access and virtual-to-physical address translation can occur simultaneously.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

A protocol developed by the Department of Defense for communications between computers. It is built into the UNIX system and has become the de facto standard for data transmission over networks, including the Internet. TCP and IP are transport and address protocols; TCP is used to establish a connection for data transmission, and IP defines the method for sending the data in packets.

transport component

A communication protocol, such as TCP/IP or Windows CE Services, that is used by Platform Manager to connect to a target device or a remote tool.

transport functions

A set of functions, exported by a mail transport service dynamic-link library, that are used to transfer mail messages from one location to another.

transport layer

A set of functions, structures, and interfaces that provide the link between Windows CE and the communications hardware on a target device.

tree-view control

A hierarchical display of labeled items. The top item in the hierarchy is called the root. If an item has other items below it in the hierarchy, it is also referred to as a parent. Items subordinate to parents are called children. Child items, when displayed, are indented below their parent item. The hierarchy may be expanded or collapsed at any level to display or hide child items.

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

A formal set of format, timing, sequencing, and error control rules for transfering files to and from a remote computer system running the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) service. The protocol can only be used for unidirectional transfer of files. It does not provide user authentication, although files do require read/write UNIX permissions.


See True Flash File System for Windows CE.

True Flash File System for Windows CE (TrueFFS/CE)

A technology from M-Systems, Inc. that allows flash memory components to emulate magnetic disks and provides Windows CE compatibility. TrueFFS/CE makes either removable flash cards or on-board flash media work as a standard storage object. TrueFFS is the DOS and Windows version.


A scalable outline font whose glyphs are stored as a collection of line and curve commands, plus a collection of hints.


See Telephony Service Provider.


See Telephony Service Provider Interface.

.ttf file

A TrueType font file.


See text-to-speech.


In Platform Builder, a type defines a general type of feature without specifying a specific implementation. A type cannot be resolved until functionality is specified by selecting an implementation.


unbound command

A command that does not have a key combination assigned to it. See bound command.


See Universal Naming Convention.


A communication between a single sender and a single receiver on a network.


A 16-bit character set capable of encoding almost all known characters and used as a worldwide character-encoding standard. Windows CE uses Unicode exclusively at the system level.

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)

See Uniform Resource Locator.

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

The address of a resource on the Internet. URL syntax is in the form protocol://host/localinfo, where protocol specifies the means of returning the object, such as Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) or File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Host specifies the remote location where the object resides, and localinfo is a string—often a file name—passed to the protocol handler at the remote location. Also calledUniform Resource Identifier (URI).


1.The universal modem driver, provided with Windows CE, that translates Telephony Service Provider Interface (TSPI) calls into AT commands, and sends the commands to a virtual device driver that talks to the modem. 2.A universal modem that supports standard modem AT commands. Windows CE currently supports only PCMCIA modems.

universally unique identifier (UUID)

A 128-bit value that uniquely identifies objects such as OLE servers, interfaces, manager entry-point vectors, and client objects. Universally unique identifiers are used in cross-process communication, such as remote procedure calling (RPC) and OLE. Also calledglobally unique identifier (GUID).

Universal Naming Convention (UNC)

The system of naming files among computers on a network so that a file on a given computer will have the same path when it is accessed from any of the other computers on the network. For example, if the directory c:\path1\path2\...pathn on computer server is shared under the name pathdirs, a user on another computer would open \\servern\pathdirs\filename.ext to access the file c:\path1\path2\...pathn\filename.ext on server. See also Uniform Resource Locator.

universal serial bus (USB)

A serial bus with a bandwidth of 1.5 megabits per second (Mbps) for connecting peripherals to a microcomputer. USB can connect up to 127 peripherals, such as external CD-ROM drives, printers, modems, mouse devices, and keyboards, to the system through a single, general-purpose port. This is accomplished by daisy-chaining peripherals together. USB supports hot plugging and multiple data streams. Developed by Intel, USB competes with DEC's ACCESS.bus for lower-speed applications.

up-down control

A control containing a pair of arrow buttons that a user can click to increment or decrement a value, such as a scroll position. When used with an edit control or other type of companion control, an up-down control is referred to as a spin button. See spin button control.


See Uniform Resource Locator.


See Uniform Resource Locator.


See universal serial bus.

USB driver

A device driver for USB-compatible devices.

user-initiated update

An operating system image update mechanism, provided by the dial-up boot loader, that is designed to be used by users and field technicians. The operating system image is downloaded using a modem connection. See also automatic update, factory update.

user level driver

See stream interface device driver.

user notification

A warning to the user that a timer event has occurred. The notification may require the user to perform some action to handle the notification or may generate a sound to alert a user. For example, the system may display a dialog box and play a sound or display an icon before a scheduled appointment. The user would tap the dialog box OKbutton to acknowledge the appointment. User notifications are always associated with an application.


See universally unique identifier.


.vbs file

A Microsoft Visual Basic, Scripting Edition macro file.

VBScript macro

A procedure that contains VBScript commands and takes no parameters. A VBScript macro begins with a Substatement, continues with VBScript commands that represent tasks you want to accomplish, and ends with an End Substatement.

vernal equinox

A point that represents the apparent ascending node of the sun in the apparent orbit of the sun around the earth. For modeling purposes, pretending that the sun orbits the earth, rather than that the earth orbits the sun, simplifies the descriptions of satellite orbits. See also ascending node.

vehicle bus bridge

A hardware interface that connects between an Auto PC's universal serial bus (USB) port and an automobile's on-board diagnostic level II (OBD II) port.

virtual-key code

A device-independent value that identifies the purpose of a keystroke as interpreted by the Windows keyboard device driver.

virtual spaces

In text editing, spaces that are inserted between the end of the line and the insertion point before new characters are added to the line.

Visual Basic,Scripting Edition

A subset of the Visual Basic for Applications programming language, optimized for Web-related programming. It is implemented as a fast, portable, lightweight interpreter for use in Web browsers and other applications. Also calledVBScript and Visual Basic Script.


wait function

Allows a thread to block its own execution. Wait functions do not return until the specified criteria have been met. The type of wait function determines the set of criteria used. When a wait function is called, it checks whether the wait criteria have been met. If the criteria have not been met, the calling thread enters an efficient wait state, consuming very little processor time while waiting for the criteria to be met. Windows CE supports only single object wait functions.

warm boot

Restarting a running computer without first turning off the power. Also calledsoft boot, warm start. Compare cold boot.

.wav file

A Microsoft standard file format for storing waveform audio data.

Web Browser ActiveX control

An ActiveX control that programmers can use to add Internet browsing capabilities to applications.

whole word match

In text searching, a process that matches all occurrences of a text string not preceded or followed by an alphanumeric character or an underscore.


The application programming interface in Windows 95, Windows NT, and Windows CE that enables applications to use the 32-bit instructions available on 80386 and higher processors.


A rectangular area on the screen where an application displays output and receives user input. On a Windows CE–based device that supports a graphical display, a window—rather than the screen itself—is the primary output device. Windows are also the means by which applications send and receive messages to the operating system. Therefore, all Windows CE–based applications—even those that lack a visual interface—need to create and manage windows.

window class

A set of attributes that Windows CE uses as a template to create a window. Each window class has a window procedure that processes messages for all windows of that class. Every window in a Windows CE–based application is a member of a window class.

window control

A predefined child window used in conjunction with another application window to provide a standardized way for users to make selections, carry out commands, and perform input and output tasks. Windows controls typically send WM_COMMAND messages.

window coordinate

The position of a window in relation to the upper-left corner of the screen or, for a child window, the upper-left corner of the parent window's client area.

window handle

A 32-bit value, assigned by Windows CE, that uniquely identifies a window.

window procedure

A function, called by the operating system, that controls the appearance and behavior of its associated windows. The procedure receives and processes all messages to these windows.

Windows CE–based platform

An operating system that contains core Windows CE operating system components, an OEM adaptation layer (OAL), and device drivers.

Windows CE Services

A set of technologies that makes Windows CE–based devices Web-enabled. Its architecture is based on a multilayered client/server model that provides the functionality to deliver Web content information to Windows CE–based devices from a wireless network or by desktop synchronization.

window shortcut

A desktop icon on a development workstation that opens a command prompt build window and calls the Windows CE Build Environment tool, Wince.bat, to set the environment variables that are used to build an operating system. Platform Builder includes window shortcuts for the Minshell configuration and for each microprocessor. See also command prompt build window.

Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)

A distributed database for registering and querying dynamic name-to-IP address mappings in a routed network environment. When dynamic addressing through DHCP results in new IP addresses for computers that move between subnets, the changes are automatically updated in the WINS database.

Windows Sockets (Winsock)

A programming interface used to provide a protocol-independent transport interface. Windows CE supports most of the common Winsock functions.

window style

A named constant that defines an aspect of the window's appearance and behavior not specified by the window's class.


An API that provides Internet access to applications using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and File Transfer Protocol (FTP).


See Windows Internet Naming Service.


See Windows Sockets.

Wireless Push Server (WPS)

See Wireless Services server component.

Wireless Services client component

Decodes and processes messages from the Wireless Push Server (WPS). The client architecture allows for new decoding components to be installed at any time.

Wireless Services server component

Allows a content provider or carrier to configure and schedule any number of information acquisition/encoding/transmission components to create a data stream to be transmitted by a carrier to the device. The server component builds on an open architecture to allow new server components to be installed in any part of the stream at any time.


1.An interactive Help utility within an application that guides the user through each step of a task. 2.In Platform Builder, wizards are dynamic-link libraries (DLLs). They set up a project for a particular type of application, querying you for the features you want in your program, then generating source files in which much of the mundane coding has been done. See application wizard.


A tool in Platform Builder that gives you visual access to the classes and members in your project, including interfaces and dialog resources. WizardBar tracks and displays your current location in code.


A container for all the files that make up a project or platform. A workspace can contain multiple projects, including subprojects, but only one platform.


See Wireless Services server component .

wrapper function

A function that provides a simplified interface to another function, for example by changing the order of some parameters or by interpreting the return code.

writeable section

A data section in a module, such as a .data section containing a module's global variables, which can be written to at run time.



An international message-handling standard for message authentication and encryption. X.509 is published by the Internal Telecommunications Union (ITU), formerly the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) standards body.


See execute in place.



A stack of overlapping windows. Each window has a unique position in the z-order.

zeroth order clock correction

A rough numerical measure of the bias in the time reported by a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite.

 Last updated on Friday, January 23, 2004

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