last - indicate last logins of users and ttys


last [-#] [-T] [-d [[CC]YY[MM[DD[hh]]]]mm[.ss]]
	  [-f file] [-h host] [-t tty] [user ...]


The last(1) utility will either (1) list the sessions of specified users, ttys, and hosts, in reverse time order; or (2) list the users logged in at a specified snapshot date and time in reverse-time order. Each line of output contains the user name, the tty from which the session was conducted, any host name, the start and stop times for the session, and the duration of the session. If the session is still continuing or was cut short by a crash or shutdown, last(1) will so indicate.

-d date
Specify the snapshot date and time. All users logged in at the snapshot date and time will be reported. This can be used with the -f file option to derive the results from stored wtmpx files. When this argument is provided, all options except -f file and -n are ignored. The argument should be in the form
where each pair of letters represents the following:
The first two digits of the year (the century).
The second two digits of the year. If YY is specified, but -CC is not, a value for YY between 69 and 99 results in a YY value of 19. Otherwise, a YY value of 20 is used.
The month of the year, from 1 to 12.
The day of the month, from 1 to 31.
The hour of the day, from 0 to 23.
The minute of the hour, from 0 to 59.
The second of the minute, from 0 to 61.

If the CC and YY letter pairs are not specified, the values default to the current year. If the SS letter pair is not specified, the value defaults to 0.

-f file
The last(1) utility reads the file file instead of the default, /var/adm/wtmpx.
Limits the report to # lines, where # is an integer.
-t tty
Specifies the terminal. The tty names can be given fully or abbreviated; for example, last -t 03 is equivalent to last -t tty03. Also, co is equivalent to console, and if tty begins with /dev/, the path is ignored, so that last -t /dev/ttyn02 is equivalent to last -t ttyn02.
-h host
The host names can be names or internet numbers.
Display better time information, including seconds.

If multiple arguments are given, and a snapshot time is not specified, the information that applies to any of the arguments is printed. Thus, last -t console root would list all of root's sessions as well as all sessions on the console terminal. If no users, host names, or terminals are specified, last(1) prints a record of all logins and logouts.

The pseudo user reboot logs in at reboots of the system. Thus, last reboot gives an indication of mean time between reboot.

If last(1) is interrupted, it indicates to what date the search has progressed. If interrupted with a quit signal last(1) indicates how far the search has progressed and then continues.


The login data base.